With a Cleopatra exhibition about to hit Philadelphia and plenty of hype to be associated with it (if it isn’t already), it seems like a good time to see what — if any — developments there have been in the search for Cleopatra’s tomb. To bring folks up to speed, after finds of statuary linked to Cleopatra and (purportedly) Marcus Antonius, the folks at Taposiris Magna were forced to shut down operations last July because the President was summering in the area vel simm. Digging resumed (apparently) in October. In November we had a semi-coherent piece about the woman in charge of this particular dig — Kathleen Martinez — and it seemed to be treading a fine line between a link to Ptolemy and ‘Cleopatra’s Tomb’. Our November update also had links to most of our previous coverage.
Now we can get to some ‘new’ stuff. Back in December, I never got around to posting about the discovery/raising of some monumental gateway associated with Cleopatra’s palace complex from the waters off Alexandria. Here’s a bit from the Guardian:
A team of Greek marine archaeologists who have spent years conducting underwater excavations off the coast of Alexandria in Egypt have unearthed a giant granite threshold to a door that they believe was once the entrance to a magnificent mausoleum that Cleopatra VII, queen of the Egyptians, had built for herself shortly before her death.
They believe the 15-tonne antiquity would have held a seven metre-high door so heavy that it would have prevented the queen from consoling her Roman lover before he died, reputedly in 30BC.
“As soon as I saw it, I thought we are in the presence of a very special piece of a very special door,” Harry Tzalas, the historian who heads the Greek mission, said. “There was no way that such a heavy piece, with fittings for double hinges and double doors, could have moved with the waves so there was no doubt in my mind that it belonged to the mausoleum. Like Macedonian tomb doors, when it closed, it closed for good.”
Tzalas believes the discovery of the threshold sheds new light on an element of the couple’s dying hours which has long eluded historians.
In the first century AD the Greek historian Plutarch wrote that Mark Antony, after being wrongly informed that Cleopatra had killed herself, had tried to take his own life. When the dying general expressed his wish to pass away alongside his mistress, who was hiding inside the mausoleum with her ladies-in-waiting, he was “hoisted with chains and ropes” to the building’s upper floor so that he could be brought in to the building through a window.
Plutarch wrote, “when closed the [mausoleum's] door mechanism could not open again”. The discovery in the Mediterranean Sea of such huge pieces of masonry at the entrance to what is believed to be the mausoleum would explain the historian’s line. Tzalas said: “For years, archaeologists have wondered what Plutarch, a very reliable historian, meant by that. And now, finally, I think we have the answer.
“Allowing a dying man to be hoisted on ropes was not a very nice, or comforting thing to do, but Cleopatra couldn’t do otherwise. She was there only with females and they simply couldn’t open such a heavy door.”
The threshold, part of the sunken palace complex in which Cleopatra is believed to have died, was discovered recently at a depth of eight metres but only revealed this week. It has yet to be brought to the surface.
The archaeologists have also recovered a nine-tonne granite block which they believe formed part of a portico belonging to the adjoining temple of Isis Lochias. “We believe it was part of the complex surrounding Cleopatra’s palace,” said Zahi Hawas, Egypt’s top archaeologist. “This is an important part of Alexandria’s history and brings us closer to knowing more about the ancient city.”
Here’s a bit more detail from al Ahram:
Ibrahim Darwish, head of museums in Alexandria and one of the archaeologist-divers, said the tower was part of an entrance to a temple dedicated to Isis Lochias and was located on Cape Lochias. According to ancient sources, Cleopatra’s mausoleum stood near this temple. A door lintel and a coin bearing the image of a similar tower were among objects discovered there in 1998.
Archaeologist Harry Tzalas, who headed the 1998 underwater archaeological mission, told the Weekly that the lifted pylon was the most important artefact found in the submerged Royal Quarter as it is a symbol of an amalgamation of Greek and Pharaonic architectural styles. Tzalas pointed out that since the pylon, which is cut in the ancient Egyptian architectural style, was found at the entrance of the Greek temple of Isis Lochias, and shows that some of the monuments of Alexandria were not only in the Graeco-Roman style but Pharaonic as well.
Although the Eastern Harbour is the place where Mark Anthony died after being defeated by Octavian, and where Cleopatra tragically ended her life, Tzalas said, the couple were not buried there. He explained that the Cleopatra mausoleum was being built near the Isis temple but was not ready when she died, and she was not buried there.
The AP coverage — which has largely disappeared from the interwebs, alas — included a nice little paragraph, inter alia:
Hawass has already launched another high-profile dig connected to Cleopatra. In April, he said he hopes to find the long-lost tomb of Antony and Cleopatra – and that he believes it may be inside a temple of Osiris located about 30 miles (50 kilometers) west of Alexandria.
- Egypt lifts huge ‘Cleopatra temple’ block from sea | BBC
- Sunken artifact reveals Pharaonic influence | Reuters
- Pharaohs’ temple tower raised from the sea | Scotsman
- Monument Lifted from Cleopatra’s Underwater City in the Mediterranean Sea | Art Daily (nice photo)
Now here’s where I was confused — and was hoping for clarification (which is why I didn’t immediately post all that) which never came — because it appeared that we had one archaeologist saying they had found something known to be near the actual tomb of Cleopatra while the Supreme Council of Antiquities head was still saying things about Taposiris Magna. Further adding to the confusion was an excerpt from Dr. Hawass’ blog at the time:
The Greek expedition was able to recognize the artifacts, and they worked in cooperation with the Department of Underwater Antiquities of Alexandria at the coastal area of Chatby. The two most important of the 400 the Greek mission found are the 9-ton pylon tower, and the 15-ton threshold of a door. Both are made of granite and are of great historical importance in reconstructing the great city of ancient Alexandria. Ancient authors such as Plutarch and Strabo write about Cleopatra’s palace being located in this area, with her mausoleum and a temple of Isis right next to it. It seems likely that this pylon tower was for that temple of Isis, since it was the only temple in the area, and the threshold, which was found very near to it, could be for the door of Cleopatra’s tomb.
… and one from an associated press release:
According to Harry Tzalas who headed the 1998 mission, the tower was part of an entrance to a temple dedicated to Isis Lochias located on Cape Lochias. According to ancient sources, Cleopatra’s Mausoleum was near this temple – a door lintel and a coin bearing the image of a similar tower were among objects discovered in 1998.
At the eastern harbor is where Mark Antony died after being defeated by Octavian. It is also where Cleopatra tragically ended her life. However, we do not think the couple was buried here.
Why not? Why not? Why not? Much of the coverage mentioned below also claims ‘evidence’ that the couple wasn’t buried in Alexandria, but the details are lacking.
In any event the ‘latest’ discovery at Taposiris Magna is being touted as the latest ‘evidence’ of Cleo’s tomb being there. Indeed, just a quick overview of some of the headlines might give you the impression that it has definitely been found, e.g.:
- Queen Cleopatra’s tomb discovery | Monsters and Critics
- Cleopatra’s tomb discovered, says Egyptian archaeologists | People’s Daily
What has been discovered in the past week or so is a headless statue of one of the Ptolemies (Ptolemy IV is apparently the likeliest candidate). The Independent’s reportage is more representative of the more reasonable coverage of this find:
Archaeologists excavating at Taposiris Magna, a site west of Alexandria, have discovered a huge headless granite statue of a Ptolemaic king, and the original gate to a temple dedicated to the god Osiris.
In a statement issued by the SCA, Dr Zahi Hawass says that the monumental sculpture, which is a traditional figure of an ancient Egyptian pharaoh wearing collar and kilt, could represent Ptolemy IV, the pharaoh who constructed the Taposiris Magna temple. He added that the statue is very well preserved and might be one of the most beautiful statues carved in the ancient Egyptian style.
The joint Egyptian-Dominican team working at Taposiris Magna discovered the temple’s original gate on its western side. In pharaonic Egypt the temple was named Per-Usir, meaning ‘A place of Osiris’. Legend has it that when the god Seth killed Osiris he cut him into fourteen pieces and threw them all over Egypt. This is one of fourteen temples said to contain one piece of the god’s body.
The team also found limestone foundation stones, which would once have lined the entrance to the temple. One of these bears traces indicating that the entrance was lined with a series of Sphinx statues similar to those of the pharaonic era.
The team, led by Dr Kathleen Martinez, began excavations in Taposiris Magna five years ago in an attempt to locate the tomb of the well-known lovers, Queen Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony. There is some evidence that suggests that Egypt’s last Queen might not be buried inside the tomb built beside her royal palace, which is now under the eastern harbour of Alexandria.
Dr Hawass pointed out that in the past five years the mission has discovered a collection of headless royal statues, which may have been subjected to destruction during the Byzantine and Christian eras. A collection of heads featuring Queen Cleopatra was also uncovered along with 24 metal coins bearing Cleopatra’s face.
Behind the temple, a necropolis was discovered, containing many Greco-Roman style mummies. Early investigations, said Dr Hawass, show that the mummies were buried with their faces turned towards the temple, which means it is likely the temple contained the burial of a significant royal personality, possibly Cleopatra VII.
- 2,000-year-old Ptolemaic statue found in Egypt | Telegraph
- Egypt finds Ptolemaic statue in hunt for Cleopatra tomb | AFP via Yahoo
- Search for Cleopatra yields Ptolemy instead | IOL
- Looking for Cleopatra | Al Ahram
- Archaeologists Find Headless Statue of Ancient Egyptian King | Bloomberg
- Headless Statue Hints at Tomb of Cleopatra: Hawass | Discovery.com (video)
- Quest for Cleopatra’s tomb reveals statue(video)
A related report in VOA includes a paragraph which gives us a glimpse, I think, of why folks might be tenaciously clinging to this Taposiris theory:
The idea of Taposiris as the burial place of Cleopatra and Mark Antony, who killed themselves rather than submit to Antony’s rival Octavian, was proposed by a young Dominican archeologist, Kathleen Martinez. She tries to evoke the couple’s last days, the end of Egypt as an empire. “She has to choose a place that she must be safe after life,” she says, because “the Romans hated her so much, they will search for her body and they will destroy it.”
… which, of course, is interesting insofar as the Romans (at the official level) don’t seem to have ever had a problem with allowing burials. It was the mob who did the inter Tiberim sort of thing. But getting back to the ‘responsible coverage’ , much of it echoes what is found in a press release at Hawass’ blog. What’s more interesting, however, is the concluding paragraph in the aforementioned Independent piece, which includes something not in the press release:
Dr Hawass has already hailed the dig as a success, whatever the outcome: “If we discover the tomb… it will be the most important discovery of the 21st century. If we do not discover the tomb… we made major discoveries here, inside the temple and outside the temple.”
Seems like Dr. Hawass is leaving the door open to back away from the Taposiris-as-tomb-site theory, no? Whatever the case, it’s increasingly starting to look like the ‘evidence’ that is preventing them from choosing the more logical site for Cleo’s tomb (in Alexandria) is the ‘non evidence’ from Taposiris Magna. I seem to hear the sound of hammers being applied to evidence …
In the wake of all that Greek ‘stuff’ that’s been happening comes an interesting item on a Greek precedent for ‘austerity’:
Ancient Greeks at the end of the 4th century BC apparently went through a period of austerity and curtailment of wasteful spending similar to that Greece is facing today, according to finds in tombs in Ancient Pydna recently brought to light by excavations conducted by the 27th Ephorate of Prehistorical and Classical Antiquities.
A recovery excavation in a land plot destined for the installation of a photovoltaic unit in the northwestern section of the fortified settlement of Ancient Pydna (in the present-day prefecture of Pieria) revealed two clusters of tombs dating back to the 4th and 3rd century BC respectively. The unviolated tombs bear witness to the passage from the age of wealth to an era of economic tightness in a region of strategic importance that was the most significant commercial center of the Macedonian kingdom.
At the end of the 4th century BC, Athenian custodian Demetrios Falireus, appointed by King Cassander of Macedon, issues a decree prohibiting the erection of opulent tombs or funeral monuments, and recommending curtailment of extravagance in funerary rituals. Thus, the 4th century BC tombs are impressive and ornately built, while those of the 3rd century BC are smaller and more frugal, deputy supervisor of the Pydna excavations Manthos Bessios told ANA-MPA.
Thus, where the 4th century tombs contained offerings made of precious materials, such as gold jewelry, elaborate vases and ivory-plated beds, the 3rd century BC tombs were smaller, less elaborate, and contained instead offerings of more mundane materials, such as clay, although both clusters of tombs were of men, women and children of the affluent social class.
The ANA coverage is alone in citing Demetrius Phalereus as the author of the decree in question … but as far as I’m aware, Demetrius was in charge of Athens. Was Pydna also part of Demetrius’ decree? Or has something been lost in translation here?
- Archaeological research shows that tombs 2300 years ago had undergone severe austerity measures | EITB
- Archaeologists find ancient austerity | Gulf Times
- Greek archaeologists uncover ancient austerity | AFP
I find this to be VERY interesting … Art Daily (one of my favourite daily reads, by the way) today informs us in a couple of excerpts:
On 11 June 2010 Sotheby’s New York will offer for sale a rediscovered antiquity from the collection of one of the greatest arts patrons of all time – Lorenzo de’ Medici. Three Satyrs Fighting a Serpent, Roman Imperial, circa 1st century A.D., is the only ancient sculpture confirmed to have been in ‘il Magnifico’s’ collection and it is estimated to sell for $300/500,000* when it is offered in Sotheby’s spring sale of Antiquities. Letters written to Lorenzo by his agents reveal that the marble group was excavated in Rome in early 1489 from the same location where several ancient sculptures, including the renowned Apollo Belvedere, had recently been discovered. Following Lorenzo’s death, the satyr group disappeared for 350 years until its reappearance in a private collection on the Dalmatian coast (then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire) circa 1857. While the work was published in the late 1930s and a plaster cast created (now at the University Museum in Graz), the whereabouts of the original ancient group were unknown for several decades, until a Sotheby’s representative happened upon it earlier this year in an Austrian Family Collection. It had descended in the family of the collector who had acquired it circa 1857 and they had become unaware of its acclaim. The present group will be on view at Sotheby’s New York from 5 -10 June, prior to its sale on 11 June 2010.
Lorenzo de’ Medici played a pivotal role in the Italian Renaissance, particularly in the renewal of interest in antiquity, and gathered a significant collection of ancient art. Recently published letters dating to 1489 indicate that Three Satyrs Fighting a Serpent was excavated from the gardens of the convent of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna on the Viminal Hill in Rome in early 1489. The marble group left Rome for Florence, destined for Lorenzo’s collection, on the morning of 13 February, packed in a crate and strapped to a mule. In a letter from the same day, Lorenzo’s agent describes the group of satyrs as “three beautiful fauns on a small marble base, all three bound together by a great snake… and even if one cannot hear their voices they seem to breathe, cry out and defend themselves with wonderful gestures; that one in the middle you see almost falling down and expiring.” (L. Fusco and G. Corti, Lorenzo de Medici: Collector and Antiquarian, Cambridge, 2006).
So far, so good … now here’s a photo of the group (via Art Daily; it doesn’t seem to be up at Sotheby’s site yet):
Now I know what you’re thinking … that looks an awful lot like:
Then the Art Daily item goes on to say (emphasis mine):
Lorenzo de Medici created an informal academy where he encouraged his court artists, including the Renaissance masters Antonio del Pollaiuolo, Domenico Ghirlandaio and Michelangelo Buonarroti, to study from classical antiquity. Striking evidence of the influence of Three Satyrs Fighting a Serpent on artists in Lorenzo’s circle can be found in at least two works: Michelangelo’s marble relief entitled “Battle of the Centaurs” circa 1490 1492, now at the Casa Buonarroti in Florence, and Pollaiuolo’s engraving “Battle of the Nudes” circa 1489, the finest impression of which is now in the Cleveland Museum of Art.
Here’s the ‘Battle of the Centaurs’ thing:
The most ‘obvious’ link is that ‘hand grasping behind the head’ pose, in the Satyrs piece, the Centaur relief, and, interestingly enough, in the Laocoon (I’m sure folks can see others as well). Back in 2005, we mentioned Lynn Catterson’s theory that the Laocoon was faked by Michelangelo and wondered ‘aloud’ a year or so later at the apparent lack of scholarly reaction to the theory. Given that the discovery of the Laocoon was in (we are told) 1506, and with this item (and this predates it by quite a bit) I think we need to wonder aloud again …
UPDATE (a few moments later):
Just came across this nice pdf of an item from 2005:
Can’t find that I’ve mentioned this one yet:
The Head of the Archaeology Department in Satu Mare County Museum Robert Gindele, said on Monday that following the process of gradiometre examination of the lands in the area, around 100 ovens were discovered underground, at a couple of tens of centimetres depth. ‘The ovens were used to make pots for supply, they have more than 2-metre diameter and are unique. I believe what we have here is the largest pottery centre in Central Europe and even Western Europe maybe. They date back from 100 AD to 350 AD,’ said Gindele.
The archaeologists hope to be able to start digging this spring in order to unearth the ovens. Gindele believes that once the digging starts, earthenware pots made in these ovens will be discovered which will provide useful information on the culture of those times. The first research activities showed that this area would have hosted some kind of complex of pots and jars production. In 1964 in Mediesu Aurit, 16 Dacian identical ovens used to burn ceramics were discovered, and they were transferred to the Satu Mare County Museum patrimony.
While I heard of the amazing Lena Horne‘s passing the usual way folks do these days — via Twitter — it was interesting that she turned up in something fetched by my spiders:
“There was Helen of Troy and then Lena Horne,” choreographer Agnes de Mille said of Horne at the Kennedy Center Honors ceremony in 1984. “It’s her magic. I have seen people lean out of their seats to watch her.”
Further investigation found that this wasn’t the first time Ms. Horne was compared to the face that launched a thousand ships; back in 1980, Jet Magazine made the same comparison, but sadly ascribed to Homer something more Marlowesque … still, Lena was definitely in the Helen category …
Well, Reg, they are helping in neutrino research:
Italy’s National Institute of Nuclear Physics, at its laboratories in Gran Sasso, has received 120 lead bricks from an ancient Roman ship that sunk off of the coast of Sardinia 2,000 years ago. The ship’s cargo was recovered 20 years ago, thanks to the contribution of the INFN, which at the time received 150 of these bricks. The INFN is now receiving additional bricks to complete the shield for the CUORE experiment, which is being conducted to study extremely rare events involving neutrinos. After 2,000 years under the sea, this lead will now be used to perform a task 1,400 metres under the Apennine mountain.
The National Laboratories of Gran Sasso (LNGS) of Italy’s National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) has received 120 2,000-year-old lead bricks from the National Archaeological Museum of Cagliari in Sardinia. The lead bricks, together with the ship that transported them, had remained in the sea for 2,000 years, which reduced by approximately 100,000 times the albeit very low original radioactivity represented by one of its radionuclides, lead-210. In fact, lead-210 has a half-life of 22 years, so that by now it has practically disappeared in the bricks.
It is precisely this characteristic that makes the lead extremely useful, in that it can be used to perfectly shield experiments of extreme precision, such as those conducted in the underground INFN laboratories in Gran Sasso. After 2,000 years under the sea, this lead will now be used to perform a task 1,400 metres under the Apennine mountain.
The part of the bricks that is “adorned” with inscriptions will be removed and conserved, whereas the remaining part will be cleaned of incrustations and melted to construct a shield for the international experiment CUORE, a study on neutrinos, whose discoveries could contribute to the knowledge of this elusive particle and of the evolution of the Universe.
Moreover, the INFN will perform important precise measures on the lead (and possibly on the copper found on the ship), to study the materials used in the Bronze Age.
The lead bricks were made available as the result of a 20-year collaboration involving the INFN, its facilities in Cagliari, and the Archaeological Superintendency of Cagliari, with the support of the General Direction of Antiquity. As part of this collaboration, 20 years ago the INFN contributed 300 million lira for the excavation of the ship and the recovery of its cargo.
The INFN would like to thank the superintendents Drs. Fulvia Lo Schiavo and Marco Minoja, as well as Doctor Donatella Salvi, for their collaboration.
“The commander of that ship would certainly never have imagined that the lead would be used 2,000 years later for something that had to do with the Universe and the stars” – comments INFN President Roberto Petronzio – “History and Science can now speak to one another across the centuries, thanks to the research in High-Energy Physics”.
“This lead,” – explains Professor Ettore Fiorini – “which is responsible for the CUORE experiment, represents an extremely important material for shielding the apparatuses used to conduct research on rare events – a material that must be totally free of radioactive contamination”.
Lucia Votano, Director of the INFN laboratories in Gran Sasso, explains that “it’s great and unique that the most advanced and innovative technologies must rely on archaeology and the technology of the ancient Romans. The ancient lead recoverd from the bottom of the sea will be essential for protecting the experiment from natural radioactivity, which could obscure the rare process of neutrinoless double beta decay”.
- Roman ingots to shield particle detector | Scientific American
- Roman ingots to shield particle detector | Nature
- Ancient Shipwreck to Aid Ghostly Neutrino Search | Discovery News
And just in case you missed the reference in my intro (although I doubt my regular readers are in that category):
Roman finds uncovered by the floods of last November have excited archaeologists – and are set for a major investigation.
The remains of a Roman fort at Papcastle have been open for several years, but nobody has ever known the shape of local roads, the size of the civilian settlement attached to it, where the river Derwent ran and where it was crossed, or where the site’s cemetery was located.
However, the floods which devastated Cockermouth last year also washed up several fragments of pottery, carved stone and possible architectural remains on the opposite side of the Derwent from Papcastle, giving new hope that some of the area’s ancient mysteries could soon be uncovered.
Now, archaeologists from Grampus Heritage and Training are to launch a survey of the land around where the finds appeared, and hope to find the remains of buildings, roads, and signs of occupation.
Using magnetometers – instruments that can detect buried walls – exploration will centre on fields alongside the River Derwent.
Project leader Mark Graham said the finds were exciting and could illustrate the size and shape of the domestic area around the fort.
He said: “A considerable amount of pottery has been found post floods. We’ve always suspected the Romans had some sort of river crossing at Papcastle. Hopefully, our searches might provide some answers.
“The field we are starting in is on the opposite side of the field from Papcastle – that may be evidence of a river crossing, or it may be that the course of river has moved and the site where we are looking was on the same side. We don’t really know the road layout around there, we don’t know where the cemetery was.”
Channel Four’s Time Team had looked at an area around Papcastle, but never as far from the fort remains as the new finds.
And there has never been a systematic geophysical investigation, but the new project will see magnetometers – instruments that can detect buried walls – used to survey a large area near where the finds were made.
Mr Graham added: “We will see if we can see into the soil. The logical next step would then be targeted excavation, with landowner permission, of particular features. We can’t guarantee the survey will produce anything, but by the end of June we should have an idea of how successful it has been.”
Volunteers are being sought to help with the investigation, details from which will form part of the county’s archaeological record.
Fieldwork takes place from May 24 to 28.
One that was lost in t shuffle last week:
WORK on the £11.6 million revamp of Canterbury’s prestigious Beaney Institute has ground to a halt – because of Roman pornography.
Archaeologists are racing against time to recover lost evidence beneath the city’s streets before the builders return.
Among the artefacts already uncovered are saucy carvings of couples having sex.
A spokesman confirmed: “We have found many personal effects and high-class pottery – known as samianware – depicting hunting and erotic scenes.”
A team from Canterbury Archaeological Trust is digging in shifts seven days a week to take advantage of the temporary halt in the building programme.
Trust Director Paul Bennett said: “We are grateful to the city council for allowing us the extra time.
“This is a vitally important site in the heart of Canterbury. What we have discovered is a unique glimpse of ordinary everyday life.”
Among the discoveries is a well-metalled and cambered Roman road and a large masonry and timber-framed building.
Mr Bennett added: “The street frontage is flanked by a narrow timber-framed portico, supported on dwarf walls that are perfectly preserved, including scars and a ‘void’ for timbers that have rotted.”
The excavation began in February and was due to end last week. But work has been extended for three more weeks.
Archaeologists believe they have stumbled on an extensive network of small shops, homes and lanes representing inner-city life nearly 2,000 years ago.
Nearby is a clay-floored workshop or shop containing bread ovens. There is evidence to suggest it burnt down and was rebuilt. The time team believe they have also uncovered stables.
The Beaney building in the High Street dates back to 1900. It is being extended to double its size to update the city’s museum and library.
The original article has a tiny photo of a fragment of one of the pots, but it’s too small to really get any idea of the ‘rudeness’ (alas) …
Interesting press release from the Austrian Mint:
For some five centuries the River Danube formed an essential part of ancient Rome’s northern border against the barbarian tribes of Germania. The Austrian Mint’s new silver series called “Rome on the Danube” breathes life back into the ruined remains of the towns and forts that played such prominent roles in the life of the Roman Empire in Austria.
The province of Noricum covered about two-thirds of modern day Austrian territory. It had been originally a kingdom of Celtic tribes until it was taken over by the Romans in a peaceful occu-pation under the Emperor Augustus in about 15 B.C. Thirty years later the Emperor Claudius converted Noricum into a regular Roman province and established the city of VIRUNUM as its adminis-trative capital. Military command was vested not in the governor at Virunum, but rather in the commander of the legions standing guard along the River Danube in the north. The governor was ap-pointed by the emperor in Rome. His primary responsibility was for finance and taxation as well as for the administration of Roman law and order. His capital stood on a Roman road connecting it to Aquileia in the south and to Ovilava (Wels) in the north and the Limes or string of forts and towers guarding the Danube border.
Virunum was the cultural centre of life in Noricum with the only great amphitheatre to have been discovered on Austrian territory. Built on the classical Roman system of a rectangular grid of streets with large open forums housing temples and grand basilicas, Virunum was an unfortified township like many other such settlements – a tribute to the Pax Romana (the Roman Peace). The streets were unpaved, but the city had a plentiful supply of water feeding public fountains and a good drainage system with lead piping. On an artificially built terrace above the city were a military camp and an elliptically shaped arena for animal and gladiatorial combat, as well as military exer-cises and training or parades.
The lack of walls rendered Virunum vulnerable to marauding tribes that managed to cross the Danube and raid the rich Roman province of Noricum, and in times of weakness and turmoil the city did fall prey to plundering barbarians. In the early Chris-tian era Virunum had its own bishop and church. Exactly when the city was abandoned we do not know, but abandoned it was. Its noble buildings of stone and marble became quarries for building materials, until the earth itself decently covered over the wounds of its ruins, leaving it to modern archaeologists to re-awaken Roman Virunum once more from its centuries’ long sleep.
The new 20 Euro silver coin shows a profile portrait of the Emperor Claudius, who founded Virunum (“Municipium Claudium Virunum”). In the background one sees a Roman wagon drawn by a pair of horses. It is part of a grave stone from Virunum, pres-ently affixed to the south wall of the church in neighbouring Maria-Saal. The reverse side displays an imaginary street scene. A Roman wagon drives past the portico of a temple. At the back rise the high walls and roof of a grand basilica. In the foreground to the left we find a blacksmith hammering the highly-prized Noric iron into swords for the Roman legions. The name at the base of the coin identifies the city as Virunum.
The new € 20 silver coin is struck in proof quality only and to maximum mintage of 50,000 worldwide. Each coin comes in an attractive box with a numbered certificate of authenticity. A collection case for the whole series of six coins may be purchased separately.
In September the second coin of the series, “VINDOBONA” (Vienna), will be issued.
The incipit of something in the Bluffton News-Banner:
The Romans had this particular inhumane form of execution known as the death of 1,000 cuts. If you cut your finger — say with a paring knife as you’re peeling an apple, or (a personal misery of mine) via a paper cut — it hurts, and you bleed a little bit, and you bear it. When you get 1,000 of them, however, the pain and the blood loss become too great and eventually life leaves the body.
… sorry, you’re thinking of something from China called slow slicing. Thanks for playing, we have a lovely selection of cleaning products the url for “google” for you to take home as a consolation prize … perhaps you’ll find it useful.
An item from the Sydney Morning Herald caught my eye at some point this week … here’s the incipit:
TONY ABBOTT is under pressure to justify telling students it was considerably warmer when Jesus was alive after leading scientists said his claim was wrong.
He urged year 5 and 6 pupils at an Adelaide school to be sceptical about the human contribution to climate change, saying it was an open question.
In a question-and-answer session on Friday, the Opposition Leader said it was warmer “at the time of Julius Caesar and Jesus of Nazareth” than now.
Leading scientists said there was no evidence to suggest it was hotter 2000 years ago. [...]
… back when rogueclassicism was young, we mentioned a study in CO2 Science on the so-called Roman Warm Period, which ran roughly from 250 B.C. to 450 A.D.. A more recent study (which didn’t get any press attention, near as I can tell, but is all over the interwebs) uses mollusk evidence to suggest the period was actually warmer than the present day. Interesting implications about the Romans’ activities rarely, if ever, seem to be mentioned in connection with the RWP (cf., e.g., claims of Roman pollution found in Iceland). Seems to be some sort of ‘elephant in the room’ situation …
UPDATE (05/22/10): The study seems to be filtering to the editorial pages, e.g.:
- <a href=”http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2010/may/19/nero-was-hotter-than-al-gore/”>EDITORIAL: Nero was hotter than Al Gore | Washington Times</a>
Interesting question over at Ask MetaFilter:
I can’t find much info about it online, the only information I can find is that he supposedly tunneled through Rosh Hanikra after having conquered Tyre, and the tunnel was large enough for him to march his entire army through.
But why is it that can no one find the tunnel? Rosh Hanikra’s site isn’t that sprawling, so wouldn’t there be some sign of it? There were apparently three tunnels that were dug centuries (and millennia later,) but if there was already an existing tunnel, why would anyone need to make new ones? (I’m obviously missing something here– could Alexander’s tunnel have filled up with debris or eroded into nothingness?)
Also where was this event first referenced as having happened?
… a couple of the responses at MetaFilter suggest they’ve never heard of this purported tunnel, and I haven’t either; links to assorted websites mentioned aren’t really useful either. Have any of rogueclassicism’s learned readers heard of this thing?
Seen on Aegeanet (please send any responses to the people/institution mentioned in the post, not to rogueclassicism!)
MINOAN ARCHAEOLOGY. CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES FOR THE 21st CENTURY, 23-27 March 2011, Institute of Classical Archaeology, University of Heidelberg
SCOPE OF CONFERENCE
The archaeology of Minoan Crete can now look back on more than 100 years of intensive research in which this field of scientific enquiry has experienced many changes and developments in quite different academic traditions. The turn of the new century which coincided with the completion of 100 years of archaeological research on the island has triggered several retrospective and prospective looks at the objectives, methods, deficits and potentials of our discipline. We would like to take the occasion of the 625th anniversary of the University of Heidelberg as an opportunity for organising an international conference for early career researchers which shall provide an innovative platform for discussing the past, the present and above all the future of Minoan Archaeology.
The main objective of this meeting will be to provide a common basis for future discussion by consenting to the precise meaning of some important theoretical terms and by identifying collective concerns in an attempt to approach new agendas for future research. Young researchers which will represent the main body of the conference participants shall be given the opportunity to present papers and engage themselves in an intellectual dialogue with some of the most distinguished senior colleagues of our discipline who will be invited to attend the conference as keynote speakers. Approaches focusing on comprehensive objectives, grounded on innovative and promising theoretical and methodological concepts shall be presented with the aim to reflect on the scopes of current research and set forth the trajectories for future Minoan Archaeology.
The topics of the conference focus on theoretical and methodological approaches. The design of the sessions is deliberately not based on material categories. Instead, the focus is on questions/issues pertaining to recent concerns of social and cultural studies. Thus, a de-contextualised approach to the different object groups shall be avoided and a re-integration of the respective objects into their original context is prompted. The key issues include but are not limited to materiality, practices, and discourses and shall be explored within the following fields:
Social Interaction/Communication: pictorial media, written media, administration, rituals, feasts, spaces/places of communal practice, self-representation, ideology, religion
Social Structures: gender, social boundaries, political institutions, households, social stratification
Cultural Processes: diachronic development of palatial society, emergence of palatial Institutions, influence of foreign cultures
Foreign Contacts: cultural interaction, emulation, trade, travel, diplomatic relationships, economic expansion
Environment/Living space: architecture, settlements, landscapes, seascapes, natural resources, geomorphology, climate, natural disasters
Economic Strategies: modes of production, modes of exchange, subsistence, storage
Technologies: lithic industries, metallurgy, ceramic production, processing of raw materials, mining, tools
Legacy of Minoan Culture: antiquity, modern times
The conference addresses young researchers (Post-Docs and PhD candidates at an advanced stage of their dissertation) who will have the opportunity to present and discuss perspectives and methodical approaches applied in their own work in an international setting. Each paper will be allotted a 30 minute time slot: 20 minutes for reading the paper and 10 minutes dedicated to discussion. For the last day a final discussion in the form of a round table will be organised. Conference language is English.
It is intended to make the conference also accessible as a live-stream on the web. More information on this will follow soon on:
The conference will invite keynote speakers to give an introductory lecture to each session and chair the Round Table discussion. Information about invited speakers will be available soon.
We are intending to prepare an edited volume of conference papers for publication, within one year after the conference. Thus, participants are strongly encouraged to submit their publication-ready version of their paper already during the conference (March 2011). The ultimate deadline is 31 May 2011. Guidelines for publication will be made available soon on our conference website:
Please submit the application form and paper proposal of 300 words to MinArch AT zaw.uni-heidelberg.de until 15 July 2010. If you do not plan to give a paper, but would like to register your interest, please get in touch! For further questions or comments regarding the conference, please contact us at the same address.
FEES AND FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE
Participation in the conference is free. Accommodation expenses will be covered. Travel expenses cannot be covered.
Prof. Dr. Diamantis Panagiotopoulos, Sarah Cappel, Ute Günkel-Maschek, Torben Keßler, Yasemin Leylek, Noach Vander Beken, Eva Wacha
Ute Günkel-Maschek, M.A. & Sarah Cappel, M.A.
Institut für Klassische Archäologie
Email: MinArch AT zaw.uni-heidelberg.de
Seen on Classicists (please send any responses to the people/institution mentioned in the post, not to rogueclassicism!)
IX International Meeting of the IPS (International Plutarch Society)
Ravello, Villa Rufolo, September 29 – October 1, 2011
transmission, translation, reception, commentary
Organized by Paola Volpe Cacciatore, University of Salerno
The aim of the Meeting is to examine Plutarch’s works from different
viewpoints. We welcome papers on the following topics:
a)Plutarch’s text, manuscript tradition, ecdotic questions;
b)Latin translations of Plutarch’s writings;
c)Methodologies of commentary and interpretation of the Plutarchean text;
d)Plutarch as reader of ancient texts
Titles and Abstracts (minimum 80 / maximum 350 words), planned for
papers that have to take no more than 20 minutes to deliver, should be
sent electronically to the official Meeting e-mail address
(ipsmeeting2011 AT unisa.it); the deadline is September 30, 2010. The
same e-mail address can be used for all requests about the Meeting.
The Scientific Commettee (made up by Prof. Frederick Brenk, Angelo Casanova,
Pierluigi Donini, Gennaro D’Ippolito, Franco Ferrari, Anna Maria
Ioppolo, Giuseppe Lozza, Paola Volpe) will give preference to papers
that shed light on original matters. The fee for the conference
participation is 120 euros (80 euros for students)
We would appreciate if you could diffuse the above-mentioned
informations about the
meeting among the different national sections’ members.
Dr. Marianna Vigorito
Organising commettee member of the IX International Meeting of the IPS.
Seen on Classicists (please send any responses to the people/institution mentioned in the post, not to rogueclassicism!)
As previously stated, The Iris Project will be starting up a new series of free lessons for adults and families this spring and summer.
These sessions will be starting on 12th June in East Oxford and will run every Saturday for ten weeks. As with the ‘Latin in the Park’ series, Ancient Greek in the Parkwill involve a series of free hour-long weekly sessions introducing the ancient Greek language to adults and families.
Latin in the park was set up to help promote access to Classics amongst adults in local communities, and has been running since April 2008. Classics is often viewed as an elite area of study only accessible to the very educated, and this can be daunting or off-putting, so the intention is to encourage people from all walks of life and backgrounds in these communities to have a go at picking up a bit of Latin and now ancient Greek over lunch in a relaxed setting!
While we are not currently looking for extra volunteers to help with the teaching, we are, however, looking for volunteers to help with other aspects of its organisation, so if you are interested in helping, please get in touch by replying to this email or through our website www.irismagazine.org.
If you would like to offer financial support for the outreach work of The Iris Project in schools and local communities, you can do so here http://www.irismagazine.org/support.htm.
Seen on Classicists (please send any responses to the folks mentioned in the quoted text, not to rogueclassicism!):
Dining & Death
Interdisciplinary perspectives on the ‘Funerary Banquet’ in art, burial and belief
Conference at the Ioannou Centre for Classical and Byzantine Studies, Oxford
Saturday 25 – Sunday 26 September 2010
When is a ‘funerary banquet’ a funerary banquet?
Depictions of banquets on tombstones and in tombs are widespread in antiquity, from Ancient Egypt to Roman Britain. The term ‘funerary banquet’ is sometimes used to refer to such images, but what does it mean, and is it useful? The banquets shown differ in format, and their meanings are debated by scholars. Do some images memorialize the dead in terms of the best that life could offer, and would people actually have experienced this in reality? Do others, in contrast, refer to ceremonial events, such as funerary rites, or even the pleasures they can expect in the afterlife? Are these images best used to gain insights into beliefs about death, or to assess cultural differences in banqueting, its manners and accoutrements? And are such aims mutually exclusive?
Answers to these questions can differ within and between disciplines, but these differences are rarely explicitly addressed. This conference will provide a forum for that purpose, bringing together archaeologists specialising in ancient Egypt, China, the Near East, and the Greek and Roman worlds, to compare images and interpretations. Focussing on this particular interpretative problem, conference speakers and audience members can also consider broader issues about the interpretation of images and archaeological evidence more generally.
Keynote address: Johanna Fabricius (Freie Universität Berlin)
Closing comments: Oswyn Murray (University of Oxford)
Amann, Petra (University of Vienna, Bankett und Grab Projekt): ‘Banquet and Grave.’ Methods, aims and first results of a recent research project.
Baughan, Elizabeth P. (University of Richmond): Burial Klinai and ‘Totenmahl’?
Harrington, Nicola (University of Oxford): The 18th Dynasty Banquet: ideals and realities.
Hartwig, Melinda (Georgia State University): Life and Death in Ancient Egyptian Banqueting.
Kalaitzi, Myrina (KERA, National Hellenic Research Foundation): The Theme of the Banqueter on Hellenistic Macedonian Tombstones.
Lockwood, Sean (Trent University): Family Matters: The interpretation of Lycian “funerary banquet” reliefs.
Mitterlechner, Tina (University of Vienna, Bankett und Grab Projekt): The Banquet in Etruscan Funerary Art and its Underlying Meaning.
Nickel, Lukas (SOAS): Banquets and Tombs in Han Dynasty China: Luoyang as a case study.
Nylan, Michael (Berkeley): Funerary Banquets in Classical-era China.
Rawson, Dame Jessica (University of Oxford): Painting Afterlife Banquets in Han Dynasty Tombs (100 BC – AD 200).
Robins, Gay (Emory University): Meals for the Dead: the image of the deceased seated before a table of offerings.
Stamatopoulou, Maria (University of Oxford): Banquets in the Painted Stelai of Demetrias
Stewart, Peter (Courtauld Institute of Art): Image and Reality in the Roman Totenmahl.
Struble, Eudora, (University of Chicago): Ritual Engraved: Rethinking the Meanings of Syro-Hittite Mortuary Feasts.
Tuck, Antony (University of Massachusetts): Dining with the Dead: Practice and Symbol in Etruscan Funerary Ritual.
Inquiries: dininganddeath.conference AT arch.ox.ac.uk
· Catherine M. Draycott, Katherine and Leonard Woolley Junior Research Fellow, Somerville College, Oxford
· Maria Stamatopoulou, University Lecturer in Classical Art and Archaeology, University of Oxford
Sponsored by: the John Fell Fund, Somerville College, the Craven Fund, the Faculty of Classics, the School of Archaeology and the Griffith Egyptological Fund, Oxford.
Seen on Classicists (please send any responses to the folks mentioned in the quoted text, not to rogueclassicism!):
Classics in the Subject Centre is pleased to announce a new day in its calendar of events: the TEACHING ANCIENT HISTORY DAY, a day aimed at promoting and supporting the teaching of Ancient History in Higher Education and providing a forum for discussion. Ancient History faces unique challenges in teaching a diverse range of materials, and this event aims to address those challenges and present practical solutions.
This FREE event will be held at the University of Leicester on June 1st 2010 in collaboration with the School of Ancient History and Archaeology. We are delighted to have four respected ancient historians who will each give a presentation on a different area of Ancient History teaching. We hope that this event will be of interest to all those who teach Ancient History at all levels.
The programme for the day is as follows:
10.15 – 10.30 Registration and Welcome
10.45-11.45 Epigraphy: Graham Oliver
12 -1 Incorporating Archaeology: Janett Morgan
2-3 Using Translations: Robin Osborne
3.15-4.15 Numismatics: Constantina Katsari
4.15-4.30 Closing remarks and end
The event is free of charge and travel subsidies are available for delegates. If you are interested in attending please email me on classicshea AT liverpool.ac.uk stating your name, institution, and any access or dietary requirements.
Please do not hesitate to contact me if you have any queries [Sarah Francis].
Seen on Classicists (please send any responses to the folks mentioned in the quoted text, not to rogueclassicism!):
Classical Association Annual Conference 2011
Durham University, Friday 15 April – Monday 18 April 2011
Call for Papers
The Classical Association Annual Conference 2011 is to be hosted by Durham
University. The presidential address and plenary lectures will be held in
the Calman Centre (on the Science site); the panels will take place nearby,
in Collingwood College.
We welcome proposals for papers (20 minutes long followed by discussion) and
coordinated panels (comprising either 3 or 4 papers) from academic staff,
graduate students, and school teachers on the topics suggested below, or on
any aspect of the classical world. We are keen to encourage papers from a
broad range of classical, historical, and archaeological perspectives.
Suggested topics: attitudes towards the future in Greece and Rome; memory
and forgetting; archives and libraries; Greek epigraphy; display practices
and public space; beauty; concepts of authorship and forgery; the identity
of the artist; the disciples of Socrates; Greek and Roman historiography;
Greek law; Greece and the Near East; Greek epigram; the reception of
Augustan poetry; the Œlong¹ third century AD; iconicity of materials; sites
of heritage; regionalism in Roman art and architecture; landscape and the
environment; reconstruction of ancient remains; e-learning.
Title and an abstract (no more than 300 words), and any enquiries should be
sent to the address below (preferably by e-mail) not later than 31 August
Paola Ceccarelli, CA 2011,
Department of Classics & Ancient History,
38 North Bailey,
Durham DH1 3EU, UK.
Email: CA.2011 AT durham.ac.uk
Tel.: +44 (0)191 3341686