This Day in Ancient History: ante diem xviii kalendas octobres

ante diem xviii kalendas octobres

  • ludi Romani (day 10 )
  • equorum probatio — the official cavalry parade of the equites (in conjunction with the above)
  • 23 A.D. — death of Nero Claudius Drusus (Drusus the Younger), son of the emperor Tiberius and Vipsania Agrippina
  • 81 A.D. — official dies imperii of Domitian (recognition by the senate)
  • 208 A.D. — birth of the future emperor Diadumenianus?
  • 258 A.D. — martyrdom of Cyprian

This Day in Ancient History: idus septembres

idus septembres

  • ludi Romani (day 9)
  • epulum in honour of Minerva and others (connected to the ludi Romani)
  • ritual of the ‘driving of a nail’ by the Pontifex Maximus/Rex Sacrorum into the Temple of Jupiter (likely connected to the above and below entries)
  • 509 B.C. — dedication of the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus (and associated rites thereafter; also incorporated into the ludi Romani, it seems)
  • 490 B.C. — yet another suggested date for the Battle of Marathon
  • 16 A.D. — revelation of the conspiracy of Lucius Scribonius Libo, leading to the first of the maiestas trials which characterized the emperor Tiberius’ principate
  • 81 A.D. — death of the emperor Titus; his brother Domitian is acclaimed as emperor
  • 122 A.D. — construction of Hadrian’s Wall begins? (I’m still wondering about the source for this claim)

Also Seen: Working Lady Gaga into the Aeneid

Alex Beam in the Boston Globe reveals 22 things he didn’t know (besides Lady Gaga’s real name), inter alia:

15. Here is something you don’t know: There have been four new translations of Virgil’s “Aeneid’’ in the past five years. Dude is Kardashian-level hot!

via Alex Beam doesn’t know Lady Gaga’s real name, among many other things – The Boston Globe.

… okay, I’m thinking Robert Fagles, Sarah Ruden, G.B. Cobbold, Stanley Lombardo, Frederick Ahl (that’s five) … People Magazine has Kim Kardashian as number 10 on their hot list so I think adding another translation will bump Vergil up to Victoria Beckham hot (number seven on People‘s list), primarily because we know she has a Latin phrase tattooed on her wrist (de integro) …

Destination Truth?

I’m kind of glad I don’t get Syfy … here’s an excerpt  from a television column:

“Destination Truth” is best described as the lovechild between “Ghost Hunters” and Anthony Bourdain’s “No Reservations,” as Gates spins off witty one-liners and asides in the fast and furious pace of the latter show, and then examines paranormal lore much like the former.

Facile of tongue and feet, Gates and his team investigate unexplained phenomenon around the world that can go from underwater locations to historic buildings or geographic hot spots of alleged ghosts and alien sightings. Nothing is off limits as Gates & Co. look for spirits, leprechauns, Nandi Bears, mermaids, and even Kraken-like giant squids. (Syfy’s Beast Legends premieres September 9 too, and covers the Kraken very well)

Gates and his crew use real ghostbuster equipment similar to the TAPS gang, as they go to old Italy in “Poltergeists of Pompeii” and then Kenya for “Nandi Bear” investigations this premiere episode.

Now if you remember from history class, Pompeii, Italy had a portion of the city obliterated and buried in ash from Vesuvius, which blew in 79 A.D. The explosion from the volcano and its spewing ash and lava killed the residents, whose remains were eerily encased in an ash entombment, later excavated by archaeologists and left as a reminder of the power of mother nature.

Then, Gates goes to the Isle of Ischia where an Italian mystic tells Josh to get a “bomba”, a spherical hollowed rock filled inside with quartz crystal that can be left at the Temple of Isis as an offering of sorts, to invoke the spirits of the ancient city who died so suddenly in the wake of the Vesuvian eruption which buried the city under hundreds of feet of ash.

The city has since been exhumed and is now carefully monitored by Italian officials so that tourists do not overrun the ruins or disturbs the remains that lay there still. The gang pulls an all-nighter to find some dead Italians milling about.

via Destination Truth Josh Gates interview, Nandi bears and Vesuvius in premiere – Monsters and Critics.

… Destination Squirrel seems a better appellation …

Thoughts on Acropolis Access

… from a Vanity Fair interview with Michael Lewis (inter alia, natch):

Which is a good segue to my next question. If you could buy the Acropolis, what would you do with it?

When I went over there, it was one of my missions to figure out what the Acropolis would cost me. I thought I would get a real-estate agent to drag me around and put values on the Greek islands and the various ruins, just to see what Greece could get if they needed to sell them. I got sidetracked, because the actual story got so much more interesting than I thought it was. So I don’t know what I would have to pay for the Acropolis, but assuming I could get my hands on it, I would, of course, turn it into a business.
The problem with the Acropolis is that they don’t manage the flow of people onto it. You get up there and the only thing you can see is the back of the head of the person who is taking the picture in front of you. And you can’t hear anything but the person behind you screaming to get out of the way because you’re standing in the way of their picture. There is no enjoying the Acropolis. It’s horrible. So if I owned it, I would start by rationing access to it and charging higher prices. I would also have an affirmative-action program where Greeks get in cheaply. I would make it more of a special event to get to the top of the Acropolis and wander around. I would have up-market tour guides, people who were experts in ancient Greece and in that site. It would be a privilege to go to the Acropolis rather than a right. I’m not sure I would make it a money thing. I want people to be able to earn their way up there. If they could demonstrate a proven interest.

Like some kind of entrance exam.

Yes, an entrance exam. I would let them in for free. But people just generally aren’t willing to work, so just assume that half the people that show up would not bother to take the test.

… would certainly open up the site for Classics types …

“Unique” Burial from Lamezia

A monumental tomb/sarcophagus find dating from the third century B.C. made during sewer/pipeline construction; it appears to be undisturbed. The find includes a lamp and a belt/bracelet of some sort, but we have no photos, alas.  The article mentions the possibility of some connection with the necropolis of the ‘subcolony’ of Croton, which would be a major find. The usual obstacles one finds in Italy (i.e. landowners unwilling to open up their land to digging) seems to be in operation here as well …

È una tomba unica nel suo genere. Come non se n’erano mai viste prima. La scoperta del sarcofago del III secolo a.C. in un oliveto vicino alla caserma dei vigili del fuoco a Caronte, così come anticipato ieri dalla Gazzetta del Sud, è di certo una delle scoperte più importanti avvenute negli ultimi anni nel nostro territorio.
Si tratta infatti di una tomba monumentale che non ha precedenti nel lametino e che di certo, per la fattura e le accurate lavorazioni, doveva appartenere a qualche personaggio importante dell’epoca. La cassa è infatti formata da ben otto lastre calcaree: due laterali, due testate e quattro usate per la copertura. I due lati lunghi del sarcofago sono formati da pezzi monolitici, mentre nella parte interna della lastra superiore sono state trovate delle incisioni.
All’interno del sarcofago, che al momento del ritrovamento era ancora integro, non “profanato”, gli archeologi hanno rinvenuto una lucerna e un pezzo femore.
Il fatto anomalo è che all’interno della tomba è stata rinvenuta solo una lucerna: all’epoca si usava invece deporre un cinturone se si trattava di un uomo o un braccialetto di bronzo se si trattava di una donna. Anche se ci sono stati molti casi in cui all’interno delle sepolture non è stato rinvenuto alcunchè.
Il dato certo, è che si tratta si una tomba appartenente ad una personalità importante, anche perchè le sepolture comuni erano fatte da lastre di terracotta, proprio come quella esposta al Museo archeologico del Complesso monumentale San Domenico, venuta alla luce durante uno scavo a Caposuvero condotto dai volontari dell’Associazione archeologica lametina.
Il sarcofago rinvenuto vicino al fiume Bagni è molto profondo e anche molto pesante, infatti gli archeologi dovrebbero smontarlo, catalogare i vari pezzi e poi rimontarlo all’interno del Museo, col supporto di una gru.
Questa importante scoperta potrebbe comunque non essere l’unica: intorno all’area transennata sono state già intraviste altre sepolture, anche se non magnificenti come il sarcofago in lastre calcaree.
Non è escluso che in quest’area, non molto lontana da Terina, possa essere localizzata la necropoli della sub colonia di Crotone. Un’ipotesi che, se fosse confermata, rappresenterebbe una scoperta dal valore inestimabile, che porterebbe la città di Lamezia alla ribalta delle cronache mondiali, e questa volta non per fatti di cronaca.
La scoperta della tomba è avvenuta fortuitamente, solo perchè su questo terreno (privato) si stanno effettuando dei lavori per il passaggio del metanodotto. Anche se gli studiosi sanno bene quanto sia importante questa zona dal punto di vista archeologico.
Due sono però gli ostacoli da sormontare: il primo è rappresentato dai proprietari dei terreni, spesso restii a lasciare le proprie terre coltivate a fini archeologici e culturali; il secondo sono le Istituzioni, che troppo spesso “disperdono” energie e fondi per manifestazioni passeggere e festaiole (per carità sono importanti anche queste!) invece di investire su progetti che puntino alla riscoperta del nostro passato e che possano riportare alla luce pezzi della nostra storia.
Bisognerebbe infatti investire di più sugli scavi archeologici, anche perchè ci sono zone, come quelle di Sant’Eufemia Vetere, dove basta spostare un po’ la terra per trovare reperti storici dall’inestimabile importanza.
Lamezia non ha bisogno di mega progetti irrealizzabili per poter sviluppare il turismo, basta solo scavare qualche metro di terra: il suo tesoro ce l’ha già, basta solo volerlo scoprire.

Surveying Philosophiana

Philosophiana is the modern ‘Sofiana’ which has been archaeologically poked and prodded for the past fifty years or so … just down the road from Piazza Armerina … from SiciliInformazioni comes news of plans for another survey there:

Da oltre 15 giorni è presente a Mazzarino una spedizione di archeologi che proviene da un progetto di collaborazione internazionale tra le Università di Cambridge, Siena, Messina e Filadelfia. Obiettivo: analizzare il sito romano di Philosophiana. “Il sito romano di Philosophiana (c.da Sofiana, Mazzarino – CL), che ha vissuto quasi mezzo secolo di intermittente attività archeologica, dalle prime ricerche di Dinu Adamesteanu degli anni ’50 a quelle
condotte più di recente dalla Soprintendenza di Caltanisetta, riveste una notevole importanza dal punto di vista archeologico. La sua vicinanza alla grande villa romana del Casale di Piazza Armerina- afferma il prof. Emanuele Vaccaro, uno dei coordinatori della spedizione- , una delle più ricche del Mediterraneo, la sua lunga storia occupazionale (dall’Età del Bronzo fino al XIII secolo d.C.) e le sue complesse funzioni (mercato, stazione di sosta lungo la viabilità, luogo per la riscossione delle tasse, abitato) lo rendono fondamentale non solo per lo studio della Sicilia romana, ma anche per le tematiche più generali riguardanti il controllo del territorio, l’economia latifondistica e le reti commerciali”. Il progetto, parte integrante di uno specifico Protocollo d’intesa stipulato nel 2009 tra la Soprintendenza di Caltanissetta, l’Università di Messina e la Cornell University, consiste in un articolato programma di studio, ricognizione e scavo attuato per più fasi e si pone i seguenti obiettivi generali: comprensione dell’evoluzione cronologica e funzionale del sito dall’Età del Bronzo in poi; studio delle relazioni tra il sito ed il territorio circostante nelle diverse epoche di vita; definizione del suo ruolo quale luogo di scambi; utilizzo del sito quale campione per meglio intendere le relazioni di controllo nel sistema insediativo romano e le relazioni tra questo e l’organizzazione del fisco. Il raggiungimento di questi obiettivi viene attuato attraverso le seguenti attività: studio e pubblicazione dei materiali inediti dei vecchi scavi; ricognizione intensiva e sistematica all’interno del sito; prospezione geofisica del sito per determinarne l’esatta estensione e la planimetria generale anche attraverso piccoli saggi di controllo; ricognizione di superficie nel territorio circostante; eventuale scavo estensivo di una o più aree. L’attività in corso svolgimento nella campagna del 2010 consiste: nell’avvio delle ricognizioni nel territorio circostante il sito; nel proseguimento delle prospezioni geofisiche all’interno del sito; nell’effettuazione di una serie di piccoli saggi di controllo dei risultati delle prospezioni geofisiche effettuate nel 2009 all’interno del sito. Il Team di progetto è costituito dai responsabili scientifici Prof. Gioacchino Francesco La Torre (Università di Messina) e Prof.ssa Kimberly Bowes (già Cornell University, dal 2010 Pennsylvania University, Philadelphia – USA), dai responsabili operativi Dott. Emanuele Vaccaro (Cambridge University – UK) e Dott.ssa Mariaelena Ghisleni (Università di Siena) e da studenti e collaboratori delle Università di Messina, Grosseto, Cambridge e Pennsylvania; il coordinamento delle attività è affidato alla Dott.ssa Rosalba Panvini, Soprintendente BB.CC. di Caltanissetta, e alla Dott.ssa Carla Guzzone, dirigente del Servizio Beni Archeologici della Soprintendenza di Caltanissetta.

New Zealand Earthquake: Some Classical Damage

From the New Zealand Herald:

Millions of books have been thrown from the shelves and an acclaimed collection of Greek and Roman antiquities worth millions of dollars has been badly damaged at the University of Canterbury.

Reports are emerging of varying degrees of damage to buildings and contents within some of the region’s schools and universities.

All schools and early childhood centres are shut until at least tomorrow while they are assessed for damage, and the University of Canterbury, Lincoln University and Otago University’s Christchurch campus are closed until next week.

University of Canterbury vice-chancellor Dr Rod Carr said examples of some damage already discovered include visible cracks in some of the 80 buildings, a toppled chimney, structural damage to walkways, stairwells and lifts, water damage, dislodged ceiling tiles and a substantial amount of broken glass.

Inside, there have been chemical spills, “more than a million books” have been thrown off shelves and some treasured specimens and collections have been destroyed.

The James Logie Memorial Collection of Greek and Roman antiquities is one such example of a collection that has suffered significant damage.

The collection, established in the 1950s in memory of university registrar James Logie, is valued at several million dollars and includes nearly 250 items.

Dr Alison Griffith, head of the classics programme, said staff were heartbroken at the extent of the damage.

At Lincoln University, initial reports indicate that the Memorial Hall has been severely damaged and a spiral staircase inside the library has fallen away. There is also a lot of broken glass around the campus.

Meanwhile, the NZ Educational Institute is encouraging schools and early childhood staff to listen to advice and keep away from quake-affected buildings and classrooms while they are assessed for damage.

The union has been fielding calls from concerned principals and teachers who want to visit their schools and centres to inspect the damage but president Frances Nelson said they needed to wait until it was safe.

“Civil Defence and the Education Ministry are rightfully taking the most cautious approach and assessors are trying to get around schools and centres as quickly as possible. The message is this is a blanket ban and no one should be at their school or centre or be instructed to go into a situation where there are clear health and safety hazards.”

Post-Primary Teachers Association president Kate Gainsford said there had been “an outpouring of concern from teachers around the country and the organisation was ready to put resources” into helping affected members if they needed it. The quake was a timely reminder for all schools to have a crisis management plan ready.

via Classical antiquities smashed to bits | NZ Herald News.

Cleopatra Claim du Jour

Inter alia:

In the ancient times, honey was not only used for culinary purposes but also for embalming the dead and in some accounts, honey was used instead of gold to pay taxes. For Queen Cleopatra, honey was a vital supplement to preserve her beauty. She used it for facials as well as in bathing where honey acted as a very effective moisturizer.

Source? Is there some ancient collection of Cleopatra’s beauty secrets? Most claims seem to fall into that category, despite questions about Cleo’s beauty in reality …

Roman Toothpaste?

From the Huffington Post:

We probably don’t know exactly when a substance was first used on teeth. But research suggests that the Ancient Egyptians first developed a dental cream as far back as 3000-5000 BC. This dental cream was comprised of powdered ashes from oxen hooves, myrrh, egg shells, pumice, and water the actual “toothpaste” was likely a powder at first, with the water probably added at the time of use. And while it probably tasted terrible, it likely provided a somewhat minimum level of tooth cleaning, at least in a “scraping away the bad stuff” sense.

Later, in Greece and Rome, we see more abrasives being added to the powder mixture, like crushed bones and oyster shells. More cleaning power, for sure, but still, the taste… Well, maybe it’s not so bad. We know the Romans added flavoring, perhaps to help with bad breath and to make their paste more palatable. This flavoring was more or less powdered charcoal and bark I’m not sure how tasty powdered charcoal really is, though.

via Thomas P. Connelly, D.D.S.: The History of Toothpaste: From 5000 BC to the Present.

Source??? At least they don’t take Spaniards in Catullus as indicative of Roman practice …

Techy Romans

Gizmodo notices the ancient world:

via Gizmodo

Since Gizmodo ties this image to Facebook, I guess the Greeks must have been addicted to MySpace:

via iecclesia

via 'education in ancient greece'

… and of course, the Greeks were already dealing with the problems of students texting in class:

via 'education in ancient Greece'

Bizarre Allianoi Update

Hot on the heels of the most recent calling-attention-to-the-impending-flooding-of-Allianoi, come this bizarre cliam from Turkey’s environment minister via Hurriyet:

Controversy over plans to bury an ancient city in western Turkey with sand ahead of a new dam project was overshadowed Wednesday by revelations from Turkey’s environment minister that the site did not, in fact, exist.

“There is no such place as Allianoi. It is just a hot spring that was recently restored called ‘Paşa Ilıcası,’” said Minister Veysel Eroğlu in response to a reporter’s question about the controversial plans to bury the ancient city, which is located near Bergama in the Aegean province of İzmir.

Eroğlu’s belief in the site’s non-existence, however, has been challenged by archaeologists and the Culture and Tourism Ministry, which describes Allianoi on its website as an ancient site that was noted for its health center.

“Veysel Eroğlu is not an archaeologist. What he said is really ridiculous,” Assistant Professor Ahmet Yaraş, head of the excavations, said Wednesday.

“Allianoi is the most protected hot spring in the world. Some 11,000 coins, around 400 metal artifacts, 400 bone artifacts, 800 ceramic artifacts and around 400 glass artifacts have been found during excavations,” said Yaraş, adding that only 20 percent of the city had been successfully excavated so far.

“We have found a sculpture of Asklepios, who was known as the god of health. Alliaoni has 400 surgical instruments, the highest number ever found, proving that the place was a hospital at the time,” he said.

Allianoi is just a fictional name, the minister said, adding that it had been restored by a former governor and constituted no more than an ordinary hot spring little different from other hot springs that can be observed throughout the country.

A total of $7 million has been spent on restoring the site since excavations began, Eroğlu said, adding that the work was conducted under the supervision of the Culture and Tourism Ministry.

“The ministry is aware of the importance of the historical artifacts and we made all the precautions in order to protect them,” said the environment minister.

Despite care from the Environment Ministry to preserve artifacts from the site – including moving sculptures from the hot spring area to the Bergama Museum and by filling the site with sand before the area is submerged by a reservoir – numerous groups have been lodging complaints about the authorities’ work, Eroğlu said.

“Despite winning 16 courts against the operations, the ancient city of Allianoi will be covered with sand before the waters of the Yortanlı Dam flood the region,” said Yaraş, adding that it was meaningless to debate what material will be used to cover the site since it will disappear forever once the area is flooded.

“Turkey has lost its reputation with the latest development,” said Yaraş.

Meanwhile, Professor Murat Güvenç, head of the History Foundation, also objected to the Eroğlu’s remarks, saying the ministry was preparing to bury the location without evaluating alternative options.

The minister probably read the first couple of paragraphs of the Wikipedia article, the second of which says:

One particularity of Allianoi is its being a very recent historical discovery. It was mentioned only once in the 2nd century by the orator and medicinal writer Aelius Aristides in his “Hieroi Logoi” (Sacred Tales) (III.1), one of the key sources for the knowledge on the science of healing as it was understood at that time. No other writer of antiquity nor any epigraphic finding known had referred to Allianoi.

… and decided to ignore the archaeological evidence that he’d have to scroll to the next screen to see …

d.m. Gordon Williams

Gordon Willis Williams, Thacher Professor of Latin Literature Emeritus, has died aged 84. Born in Dublin in 1926, Professor Williams was educated at Trinity College Dublin and at the University of Oxford. Before coming to Yale, he enjoyed a distinguished career as Fellow and Tutor at Balliol College, Oxford and as Professor of Humanity at the University of Saint Andrews in Scotland. In 1973 he was invited to deliver the Sather Lectures at Berkeley. He joined the Yale faculty in 1974.

Williams’s publications were numerous and influential. A groundbreaking series of articles in the late 1950′s dealing with aspects of Roman social history and the position of women was followed in 1968 by the appearance of the massive and classic work Tradition and Originality in Roman Poetry, a book of fundamental importance to which Classicists forty years later are still responding. In quick succession came an edition of the third book of Horace’s Odes in 1969 and then a briefer version of Tradition and Originality in 1973. There followed more major and provocative works of scholarship, Change and Decline: Roman Literature in the Early Empire (1978), Figures of Thought in Roman Poetry (1980), and Technique and Ideas in the Aeneid (1983).

For many years Gordon maintained a very high profile in the profession, frequently travelling all over the world to give lectures or teach specialized seminars. A great teacher of undergraduates, he directed many dissertations in his quarter century at Yale: his students and students of his students teach in Departments of Classics and of Comparative Literature from coast to coast. He was a great asset to Yale and to the Department of Classics. He will be much missed.

via: Gordon Willis Williams | Yale

On Scones in Virgil

Interesting item mentioned in passing in the Record, inter alia:

Scones are to the British what bagels are to New Yorkers. Food historians say that scones actually originated in Scotland, first appearing in a 1513 Scottish poet’s translation of Virgil’s “The Aeneid.” In other words, these quick breads have been around a long time.

via: Bounty of baked goods in Pompton Lakes

Presumably this is Gavin Douglas‘ translation of the Eneados … I can’t seem to find the word ‘scone’ in either volume one or two at Googlebooks, but it uses those ‘long s’es (i.e. the one that looks like an f … fcone doesn’t work, just in case you were wondering).

UPDATE (the next day): Tip o’ the pileus to Neils Grotum and David Smart who tracked down the OED reference and from that found the appropriate section; as one might have reasonable guess, it’s the ‘table-eating’ bit from book seven (VII ii 9-28 according to the OED):

Eneas, and othir chiftanys gloryus,
And the fresch lusty springald Ascanius,
Vndre the branchis of a semly tre
Gan lenyng dovn, and rest thar bodeys fre,
And to thar dyner dyd thame all adres
On grene herbis and sonkis of soft gers:
The flowr sconnys war set in, by and by,
With othir mesis, sik as war reddy;
Syne bred trynschouris dyd thai fyl and charge
With wild scrabbis and other frutis large.
Betyd, as was the will of Jupiter,
For falt of fude constrenyt so thai war,
The other metis all consumyt and done,
The paryngis of thar bred to mowp vp sone,
And with thar handis brek, and chaftis gnaw,
The crustis, and the coffyngis all on raw;
Ne spar thai not at last, for lake of met,
Thar fatale four nukit trynschour forto eyt.
Och ! quod Ascanius, quhou is this befall ?
Behald, we eyt dur tabillis vp and all !

Here’s the page via Google Books

Scaffold Comes Off Athena Nike

From AFP:

Builders have completed another stage of restoration of the Acropolis in Athens with the removal of scaffolding from the temple of Athena Nike, the head of renovation efforts said Friday.

“The entrance to the Acropolis is free of all scaffolding, a sight not seen since the end of the 1970s,” Maria Ioannidou said, urging tourists to take advantage of it before more work begins on the Parthenon.

Overlooking the Propylaea, the small Ionic monument was the last site to be restored under a project which started in 2001 at a total cost of 42.6 million euros (54.7 million dollars).

Work on the temple, which required dismantling it, was delayed by damage to its marbles — inflicted over time and during 19th century restorations.

Separate restorations of the Propylaea and Parthenon were completed in December and May respectively.

But the Parthenon will again be covered in scaffolding and surrounded by cranes for work on its western part to transfer six metopes, or sculptured marble blocks, threatened by pollution, to the Acropolis museum.

The Greek government promised in May to continue the restoration, despite a crippling financial crisis, with the help of European funds.

Ioannidou estimates that archaeologists have at least a decade of work ahead of them.

The buildings on the Acropolis, the hill overlooking Athens, date from the fifth century BC, a golden era for Athenian democracy, under leader Pericles.

via: Greece’s Temple of Athena Nike restoration complete | AFP via Google

Cleopatra Claim du Jour

My spiders bring me back piles of things which are claimed about Cleo … I’ve decided I might as well share them in the hopes someone might be able to point to a source. We’ll start the series off with this one (inter alia, of course):

Just talking about lice makes most of us start scratching our heads, but don’t let lice get your child down. Lice doesn’t play favorites; even Cleopatra, the Egyptian queen, had her own golden lice comb.

Source? (Or did Cleo shave her head an wear a wig?)

Royal Burials at Peperikon?

From Novinite:

Bulgarian archaeologist Nikolay Ovcharov has discovered two tombs of Ancient Thracian rulers near the famous rock city and sanctuary of Perperikon.

The tombs are dated to 1100-1000 BC judging by the pottery and ceramics found in them, which are characteristic of the later Bronze Age and the early Iron Age.

One of the most interesting finds in the tombs is a bronze coin with the face of Emperor Alexander the Great, dated to the 4th century BC. Prof. Ovcharov believes this is a clear evidence that the tomb was venerated as a shrine by the Thracians in the Antiquity for a long time after its original creation.

The archaeological team stumbled across the two tombs as they were working on diverting a tourist path away from a spot of excavations at Perperikon, the holy city of the Thracians.

The tombs are situation in an east-west direction, with the buried notable facing the rising sun, a clear sign of a sun cult.

The excavations have revealed ritual hearths and others signs of sacrifices that were connected with the traditions of venerating the dead as godly creatures.

via: Top Bulgarian Archaeologist Stumbles Upon 2 Ancient Thrace Tombs

The coverage of this one includes a photo of the tomb … here’s the version from Novinite:

via novinite

See also the one from Standart:

from Standart

Now the report does mention the tomb was ‘stumbled’ upon, and clearly this doesn’t look like a conventional tomb (entrance?), but it’s certainly ‘different’, so how come no one seems to have been curious about this before? (perhaps it was buried?)

See also:

Thracian Ruler Buried in Perperikon 3000 Years Ago | Standart