Chimera of Arezzo Redux

The so called "'Chimera of Arezzo" i...
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Longtime readers of rogueclassicism may remember a post from a couple of years ago wherein was mentioned the contention that the Capitoline She-Wolf was not as old as we thought (the subject first came to our notice in one of Mary Beard’s posts). At the time, I wondered whether the Chimera of Arezzo would be soon coming under the same scrutiny. I asked the same question last year when the Chimera went on display at the Getty.  In the latest AJA I notice an article by P. Gregory Warden: The Chimaera of Arezzo: Made in Etruria? which deals with just the sorts of things I was wondering about (it appears the antiquity of both the Chimera and the Amazon Sarcophagus in the Florence museum came under scrutiny in the wake of the Capitoline Wolf reexamination). What’s even better, the pdf (link on the page) is ‘free’ and can be perused by all and sundry (and rogueclassicists). Enjoy …

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Cartledge and Romm Discuss Alexander

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I’ve mentioned these in my Explorator newsletter, but I don’t think I’ve mentioned them here (and I think I missed one in Explorator). Forbes has a very interesting weekly series going on in which Paul Cartledge and James Romm are discussing various aspects of Alexander the Great:

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Also Seen: The Ionic of the Erectheium

Erechtheum, one of ionic capitals, Athens Acro...

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Over the holidays I stumbled — archaeologist-like — and wrecked my knee; but other than that, I did manage to find The Classicist Blog (about which I was curiously unaware), which is associated with the Institute of Classical Architecture and Classical America. It has some interesting items within our purview every now and then, the now being:

Folks might also want to kill some time perusing previous Classical Comments installments therein …

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Sympotic Summary

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Wow … a zillion different versions of this one which looks at Kathleen Lynch’s work which she is presenting in a few days at the AIA shindig. Here’s the version from Science Daily:

How commonly used items — like wine drinking cups — change through time can tell us a lot about those times, according to University of Cincinnati research being presented Jan. 7 by Kathleen Lynch, UC associate professor of classics, at the annual meeting of the Archaeological Institute of America.

Lynch will present the research at the event’s Gold Medal Session, when archaeology’s most distinguished honor will be bestowed on her mentor, Susan Rotroff of Washington University.

UC’s Lynch will present a timeline of wine drinking cups used in ancient Athens from 800 B.C. to 323 B.C. and will discuss how changes to the drinking cups marked political, social and economic shifts.

Background

Lynch’s specific area of study, which will result in a forthcoming book, is what’s known as the “symposium” in ancient Athens. These were gatherings held for nearly a millennia where communal drinking of wine was a means for cementing cultural norms and social bonds that carried over into the world of politics and business.

Think of these symposia as the ancient world’s ultimate cocktail parties, with established rituals and rules. An important aspect of any symposium was the wine cup, and the form of and the imagery on the cups reflected the shared culture of participants, as well as the larger social realities and changes in their world during the following periods:

* Iron Age (1,100-700 B.C.)
* The Archaic Period (700-480 B.C.)
* The Late Archaic Period (525-480 B.C.)
* The High Classical Period (480-400 B.C.)
* The Late Classical Period (400-323 B.C.)
* The Hellenistic Period (323-31 B.C)

Basic rules of Athenian symposia:

* Couches or mattresses used by reclining participants were set in a circle or square. So, there was no formal position of status or group “head.”

* Drinkers imbibed in rounds, so consumption of wine (mixed with water) was equitable. In other words, everyone got drunk at about the same rate. No teetotalers permitted.

* Said Lynch, “The focus was on drinking communally and in equal amounts. Inhibitions were lost. In-group bonds were formed. “

Why study these items?

“Because,” stated Lynch, “People’s things tell you about those people and their times. In the same way that the coffee mug with ‘World’s Greatest Golfer’ in your kitchen cabinet speaks to your values and your culture, so too do the commonly used objects of the past tell us about that past. And, often, by studying the past, we learn about ourselves.”

IRON AGE SYMPOSIA AND DRINKING CUPS (1,100-700 B.C.)

* The drinking gatherings (symposia) were reserved for the elite, probably allowing political factions to consolidate power and set themselves apart from the population at large. In other words, the drinking gatherings were for the “in” crowd.

* At this time, even grave markers for the very wealthy came in the form of the mixing bowls (kraters) used to blend wine with water during symposia. In other words, the ability to sponsor these drinking events was what people wanted to be remembered for.

* The drinking cups during this period were simply decorated and rested directly on a base (no stem).

THE ARCHAIC PERIOD (700-480 B.C.)

* After the turn of the 6th century B.C., changes in the fashion of drinking cups began, corresponding with Athens’ rising political power and rising dominance in the ceramic market. Variety and quality were high during this period. It was the beginning of black-figured pottery production as well as plain, black-glazed versions. Stemmed cups became more popular, probably because they were easier to hold while reclining.

* The middle of the 6th century B.C. saw a rapid proliferation of cup types: Komast cups, Siana cups, Gordion cups, Lip cups, Band cups, Droop cups, Merry-thought cups and Cassel cups — last only a few decades in terms of popularity. Some of these remain popular for only a few decades.

* Explained Lynch, “Possessing what was newest in terms of mode and style of drinking cups was likely equated with knowledge and status. The elites may have been seeking cohesion and self definition in the face of factional rivalries and populist movements. This hypothesis underscores how the drinking symposia — and specific cup forms identified with specific factions — might have been used by aristocratic blocs to cement group bonds in the politically charged environment of the time.”

LATE ARCHAIC PERIOD (525-480 B.C.)

* The overall number of wine-drinking vessels increased dramatically during this period, pointing to the democratization of the symposium, as well as the democratization of the political and social arenas. The masses had become the political, if not the social, equals of the elites, and these masses were now enjoying symposia of their own.

* It’s estimated that drinking vessels for symposia comprised up to 60 percent of the terra cotta fineware (collection of dishes) in the typical Athenian home of this period. “The typical home had few useful dishes for eating in contrast to many vessels designed for drinking wine in communal settings,” explained Lynch.

* This period ends with the devastating Persian Wars, which Greece won. The proliferation of cup types fell, with red-figured drinking cups, introduced around 525 B.C., becoming the most popular.

HIGH CLASSICAL PERIOD (480-400 B.C.)

* Red-figured cups (cups decorated with red figures vs. black) remain popular through the first part of this period of cultural development in Athens, but the cups grow taller and shallower.

* By the end of the 5th century B.C., Athens was weathering the Peloponnesian Wars and plague, and people were searching for an escape. This came in the form of an aesthetic restlessness. Fads in drinking cups came and went, but few developed into long-lived styles.

* These new cup innovations tended to emulate the fineness commonly found in silver work at the time. For instance, there were many more plain, black clay cups with shiny surfaces. And delicate stamped and incised designs in clay cup interiors imitated metal prototypes on the cheap. In other words, the common terra cotta cups were “designer knock-offs” of the “high-end” designs found on silver cups.

* Stemmed cups had finally run their course, being 200 years old at this point, and a stemless form became more popular.

* Said Lynch, “People may have been seeking a visual antidote to the struggles of the period and a yearning for luxury at odds with daily conditions.”

LATE CLASSICAL PERIOD (400-323 B.C.)

* Trends toward pseudo luxury (designer knock-offs) in drinking cups continued; however, the variety of these “silver-inspired” clay cup designs diminished after the turn of the 4th century B.C., probably because the forms were impractical. For instance, one clay cup — modeled on a silver drinking vessel — featured delicate high-swung handles that served no useful purpose in clay.

* Also “running out of steam” in this period was the tradition of decorating cups with human figures. A decorative innovation, called West Slope, became popular at this time. It consisted of colored clay applied atop black-glazed surfaces to create the effects of garlands and wreaths. Human figures were no longer depicted.

* Finally, as Athens fell under the sway of Philip of Macedon and his son, Alexander the Great, the symposium came full circle. It began in the Iron Age as a practice of the elite. Then, with the movement toward democratization in Athens, participation in symposia broadened. Now, in Athens’ Hellenistic period, the practice was again the prerogative of the elites as a luxury and display of ostentatious consumption. Equality was no longer important in a state that was no longer democratic but monarchical.

Lynch’s research on symposia of ancient Greece received funding from the Louise Taft Semple Fund of the Department of Classics at UC; the Samuel H. Kress Foundation; and the Sheldon H. Solow Foundation, Inc.

The original UCincinnati press release — upon which this and most of the other press coverage is obviously based on — includes photo exemplars of a number of the items:

Even better … there’s a four-and-a-bit Youtube video:

… it’s also the subject of one of Scientific American’s 60 Second Science podcasts:

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Bread and Circuses: Emperors of Rome Podcasts

Family tree of Julio-Claudian Dynasty producin...
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Amicus noster Adrian Murdoch is celebrating the quinquennium of his Bread and Circuses blog by inaugurating a series of brief podcasts on Roman emperors. The first one is (obviously) about Augustus and serves as a nice intro to that guy’s principate:

According to Adrian, these will be posted every Monday, so we look forward to linking to them!

 

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This Day in Ancient History: pridie nonas januarias

Scene from Lararium, House of the Vettii Pompeii
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pridie nonas januarias

  • ludi compitales — day two of a moveable festival which might occur anytime between Saturnalia and January 5. It was largely a rural occasion involving woollen dolls being made to represent each free member of the household (simple woollen balls would be used to represent slaves) being hung up on the eve of the festival, presumably as offerings to the Lares. There would also follow more formal sacrifices at the compita (places where two farm paths crossed).
  • 1785 — birth of Jacob Grimm
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