Just remembered what was bugging me about that original article … way back in 2004 (and I thought I had blogged this, but perhaps it was in Explorator), a Berlin-based researcher had claimed to have figured out the ‘formula’ for Pompeii red, which included a pile of cinnabar. Discovery News had the story … here’s an excerpt:
Aiming to discover the causes of the dramatically different chromatic effect resulting from the use of the same mineral pigment, Daniele analyzed the stratigraphies of some samples from Pompeian villas featuring the unique red and compared them to other ancient Roman wall paintings containing normal cinnabar paint layers.
Cinnabar is mercuric sulfide, the principal ore contained in mercury.
It emerged that in the case of Pompeian red, natural cinnabar was processed with particular care, which included what Daniele calls “purification, grinding and dimensional control.”
“The finer the grains are, the more brilliant and covering the color is. But there is much more. In my microscope observations, I detected a bimodal granulometry with 10-15 micron crystals acting as shiny particles in a matrix of finer grains,” Daniele said.
Basically, the ancient Romans simply added some bigger grains to the finely processed cinnabar powder, made of grains measuring about 2-3 microns. The result was a glittering surface that did not loose its saturated red tone.
According to Bernardo Marchese of Naples University Federico II’s materials engineering department, cinnabar red required careful processing indeed.
“The pigment was used in lime medium, and had to be liquid enough to be applied in paint layers on the wall surface … . The final result was subjected to wax polishing, in order to prevent alterations, especially when the color was applied on outside walls,” Marchese and colleagues wrote in the catalogue of the Pompeii exhibit “Homo Faber: Nature, Science and Technology in a Roman Town.”
Daniele’s analysis showed that, on the contrary, samples of normal cinnabar paint layers featured just a light processing of the pigment. Cinnabar powder made of larger grains measuring between 10 and 25 microns turned out to be more transparent and dull, producing a color similar to a red ochre, the researcher said.
Clearly this is beyond my training, but I was under the impression that cinnabar would give a red colour ….
From Rome Reports:
Fun item from Corriere del Mezzogiorno … a tourist is out hiking near Paestum, falls in a hole and discovers what eventually turned out to be three (Etruscan?) tombs:
Pare l’inizio di un romanzo: un turista passeggia in un’area archeologica e forse assorto nei suoi pensieri inciampa in una buca. Non una buca qualsiasi. Ma una che nasconde una tomba antica con pareti dipinte dal valore inestimabile. Nessun incipit letterario: è accaduto realmente a Paestum solo qualche giorno fa, quando un signore italiano, mentre camminava in un’area vicina ai famosi Templi, denominata località Spina Gaudo, è inciampato in una buca. L’uomo immediatamente è accorto di trovarsi di fronte ad una tomba antica. Cittadino modello, è andato a bussare alla porta della Compagnia della Guardia di Finanza sul lungomare San Marco ad Agropoli. Le Fiamme Gialle, coordinate dal capitano Salvatore Perrotta, recatesi sul posto hanno accertato l’effettiva presenza dello scavo e hanno allertato la Soprintendenza dei Beni Archeologici di Salerno. Sono partite così le operazioni di recupero.
There’s a tiny photo with the original coverage … looks Etruscan … The article does continue a bit, and I should note that it dates from the end of July.
Martin Conde alerts us to an item in today’s Corriere della Sera (which hasn’t made it to the online version yet) in which it is suggested that gases from the eruption of Vesuvius altered the original ‘yellow’ to produce the famous ‘pompeiian red’ we associate with, inter alia, the Villa of the Mysteries. MC has put up a pdf of the article at his website … alternatively, you can see it in his flickr stream. We’ll see if this gets any coverage in the English part of the world … seems to be a pretty major discovery, if true. (I need more details; there is yellow in plenty of frescoes with ‘pompeii red’ … why didn’t it change?)
Perhaps my spiders (see next post) were just confused by this one, as I was last night … from Standart:
A pot with gold jewelry dating back from the Thracian period was donated to a museum instead of being smuggled by black archeologist’s mafia. A day ago the police found in the house of 41-years old R.T. from the town of Svishtov valuable finds cached in one of the rooms. The police determined that the jobless man found a ceramic pot containing a gold spiral bracelet, 6 pieces of gold jewelry, 6 gold earrings and bronze tools, including axes and other blades. The police didn’t press charges as the man decided to donate the treasure to a local museum.
The treasure turned out to be very valuable. The finds date back to the Bronze Age or 4,000 years ago, archaeologist Ivan Tsarov said. Currently experts cannot estimate the real value of the treasure but most probably its price will exceed hundreds of thousands euro. The objects will remain in the Svishtov Museum of History.
I’ve never read/heard of the (somewhat offensive, in context) term “black archaeologist” or the related “black archaeologist mafia” before … it seems likely a literal translation of something akin to tombarolo, or is there more to it?
Have to give my spiders a #fail on this one … they totally missed it, but it seems it’s all over the twittersphere. From Novinite:
The Bulgarian Customs Agency has bestowed upon the Regional History Museum in Burgas a statue of a Roman goddess or a female aristocrat that they captured at the Bulgaria-Turkey border.
The Roman statue is dated to the 2nd century AD; it was seized during a customs check at the Lesovo border crossing point from a Volvo truck with Turkish license plates transporting clothes from Turkey to Belgium via Bulgaria.
The statue was formally received as a donation Wednesday by Tsonya Drazheva, head of the Burgas Regional History Museum in connection with the European Cultural Heritage Days.
Under the Bulgarian legislation, the Roman statue will be kept in the Black Sea city of Burgas until the respective authorities figure out its origin and whether it has been stolen and searched for by Interpol.
The ancient statue seized from the international treasure hunters and antique trafficking mafia bears no marks from any museum, which means that the valuable archaeological find will probably be kept permanently by the Burgas museum.
The Roman statue in question probably used to decorate the forum of a large city in the Roman Empire, according to Drazheva. It is made of Mediterranean marble.
The head of the statue from the late Antiquity period was probably removed during the age of early Christianity, which was a common practice at the time.
Thanks to the Burgas Customs, the local history museum is the only one in Bulgaria outside of Sofia, which has an entire collection of ancient artifacts and finds captured from traffickers of antiques.
The original article has a nice photo which reminds me of a question I’ve long pondered about these tombaroli types:
This is yet another statue which seems to have it’s head missing (not uncommon), but also its hands. Whenever I’m browsing through auction catalogs, I’m always seeing hands and feet from statuary being offered for sale. I wonder if tombaroli and the like actually hack the things off to increase their return?
Seemed to have missed a day again:
- Directions in Ancient Sport History September 16, 2011 History of the Ancient World
- Jordan Codices: More About the Altered Metallurgical Report September 15, 2011 Steve Caruso
- Round-Up: September 15 September 15, 2011 email@example.com (Laura Gibbs)
- Ancient and Modern September 17, 2011 (Peter Jones)
- IOT: 15 Sep 11: The Hippocratic Oath September 15, 2011 (author unknown)
- Bibliography: Ancient Weddings September 15, 2011 classicslibrarian
- Hector’s Wish September 15, 2011 Michael Gilleland
- Foreign Women in Imperial Rome: the Isotopic Evidence September 15, 2011 Kristina Killgrove
- Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium (CSCO): Scriptores Coptici Online September 15, 2011 Charles Ellwood Jones
- Diminutives in LSJ September 15, 2011 Uncle P
- “New “Unknown Gospel” Fragment Identified” P.Oxy. September 15, 2011 G.W. Schwendner
- On This Day (September 15) September 15, 2011 Eric
- APA Blog : CFP: Go! Classics Go! The Beat Generation, The Avant-garde and the Roots of Counterculture September 14, 2011 (author unknown)
- Interview: Tom Holland on Ancient Rome September 14, 2011 Medievalists.net
- Guess Who September 14, 2011 (N.S. Gill)
- Mastering Greek Grammar September 14, 2011 Michael Gilleland
- On This Day in Ancient History – Domitian Came to Power September 14, 2011 (N.S. Gill)
- Gastrophobia – Unbearable. September 14, 2011 (author unknown)
- Bibliography: War and Peace in Antiquity September 14, 2011 classicslibrarian
- On This Day (September 14) September 14, 2011 Eric