CJ Online Review: Mirto, Death in the Greek World

posted with permission:

Death in the Greek World: From Homer to the Classical Age. By Maria Serena Mirto. Translated by A. M. Osborne. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2012. Pp. x + 197. Paper, $19.95/£19.95. ISBN 978-0-8061-4187-9.

Reviewed by Robert Garland, Colgate University

As “a general synthesis of people’s relationships with death in the Greek world,” this book has much to commend it. In attempting to establish a convincing thesis that makes an original contribution to our understanding of social attitude it is rather less successful.

Mirto’s first chapter, which is entitled “Life and Death in Popular Belief,” offers an interpretation of “popular” on evidence predominantly drawn from Homer. Quotations from the Homeric poems also dominate Ch. 3 and are central to Ch. 5, accounting for well over a third of all the passages discussed in the entire book. It would have been helpful to have some acknowledgement of the artificiality of any literary genre, epic in particular, as well as some justification for the tacit assumption that Homeric ideas and practices may legitimately be regarded as popular. Citing Il. 23.179 Mirto observes, “Even death cannot interrupt [Achilles’
and Patroclus’] heroic friendship … in a paradox that overturns and challenges the usual understanding” (p. 113). But what is “usual” in the seventh century and what comparison do we have to go by?

The predominant appeal to Homer also presents Mirto with a significant conceptual challenge in her attempt to detect a line of evolution from Archaic to Classical eschatological belief, as she seeks to identify “the beginnings of a trend away from the calm acceptance that characterized the response of small eighth-century B.C. communities toward the anxieties attending a more individualized vision of death” (p. 4). Again, how can we be sure that this is what occurred, even in the most general terms? One of the striking features of Greek eschatology is that expressions of anxiety relating to death are rare for any period of history. True, the rise of the mystery religions, coupled with the discovery of Bacchic gold leaf tablets, etc., which Mirto discusses with admirable clarity in Ch. 2, does demonstrate evidence of concern about one’s fate in the afterlife. But while this evidence can be taken to indicate greater “anxiety” in some quarters, it remains unclear how widely this feeling would have been shared by the Greek population overall. On the basis of the limited archaeological testimonia that have so far come to light, it seems that only a minuscule fraction of the population signed up for the more esoteric forms of eschatological belief, and even the mystery religions, Eleusis included, may not have been mainstream. I am therefore uncomfortable with Mirto’s claim that this material can be interpreted to indicate that “A Revolution of Hope” (her chapter heading for this presumed development) occurred presumably at some point in the Classical period. Ch. 3, which examines funerary ritual, is entitled “The Long Farewell” because of the duration of the mourning period. I have problems with the claim that “the democratic polis … diminished the woman’s role in the laments and in the ceremony more generally” (p. 81), since, if this is true at all, it only relates to the burial of the war dead. The fact is, however, that we know little about the ritual surrounding the epitaphios logos and should not assume that women had no place in the ceremony. Ch. 4 discusses funerary monuments and tomb cult, including hero cult. Ch. 5, entitled “Making Good Use of Death,” examines the concept of heroic death in Homer and other Archaic poets, the state burial of the Athenian war dead, and funerary legislation. The Appendix offers an overview of the history of the study of death in ancient Greece. More distinction between categories of the dead would have been welcome. Instead, the dead are treated largely as a single entity.

Mirto deserves credit for providing a helpful and at times illuminating discussion of a ceaselessly fascinating topic that has as much to tell us about Greek attitudes towards life as it does about attitudes towards death. In the end nothing is more elusive, more personal, or more idiosyncratic than beliefs about the afterlife, even in the case of a single individual. Students of death must do the best they can with the literary and archeological evidence, even though the two are hardly ever on speaking terms. In conclusion, this is an up-to-date synthesis of a subject that is impossible to explore and explicate in such a brief compass without indulging in generalizations.

Action Philosophers! Thales! Anaximander!

Over at Brain Pickings — one of our fave distractions — Maria Popova alerted us to this massive graphic novelesque effort called Action Philosophers … it includes some excerpts which happen to be within our purview (scroll down past the Cartesian and Peanuts gang):

Sundial from Chakidiki

From Greek Reporter:

One of the rarest sundials dating from the Greco-Roman period was found in Polichrono in Chalkidiki.This sundial is not a usual one as it shows the correct time at any given place.

It is noteworthy that in the Ancient Greek world, sundials consisted of a gnomon (indicator in Ancient Greek) in the form of a vertical post or peg set in a flat surface, upon which the shadow of the gnomon served to indicate the time.

This sundial has a surface which is separated in 12 parts representing 12 hours of the day. More particularly, the sundial consists of a hyperbola tracing the shadow’s path at the winter solstice, a second one for the summer solstice, and a straight east-west line in between marking the equinoctial shadows.

A line from the base of the gnomon to the south of the dial running due north denotes noontime. The hyperbola is centered on this noon line. The winter hyperbola opens to the north, the summer hyperbola to the south. In addition to the center noon line, additional oblique lines are added on either side to denote the hours of daylight before and after noon.

Archaeologist of the 16th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, Betina Tsigarida, specialist in the area of Chalkidiki, was the one to find the sundial and was given it as a reward for her work.

via: Old Sundial Found in Chalkidiki (Greek Reporter)

Classical Words of the Day

cassandra (Wordsmith)


This Day in Ancient History: ante diem xv kalendas novembres

ante diem xv kalendas novembres

  • 48 B.C. — Octavian dons his toga virilis
  • 17 A.D. — restoration of the Temple of Janus at the Theatre of Marcellus (and associated rites thereafter)
  • 31 A.D. — Execution of the commander of the Praetorian Guard, Lucius Aelius Sejanus, after revelation of his activities against the emperor Tiberius.
  • 33 A.D. — Death of Vipsania Agrippina (Agrippina ‘the elder’), wife of Germanicus and mother of the emperor Gaius (Caligula), among others.
  • 84 A.D. — martyrdom of Luke