Hadrian’s Athenaeum Dig Completed

The Guardian seems to be alone in covering this one in English, but (as we shall see) what is being touted as a ‘new discovery’ has been in the process of excavation for at least three years now. Here’s the Guardian‘s coverage:

Archaeologists who have completed the excavation of a 900-seat arts centre under one of Rome’s busiest roundabouts are calling it the most important Roman discovery in 80 years.

The centre, built by the emperor Hadrian in AD123, offered three massive halls where Roman nobles flocked to hear poetry, speeches and philosophy tracts while reclining on terraced marble seating.

With the dig now completed, the terracing and the hulking brick walls of the complex, as well as stretches of the elegant grey and yellow marble flooring, are newly visible at bottom of a 5.5 metre (18ft) hole in Piazza Venezia, where police officers wearing white gloves direct chaotic traffic like orchestra conductors and where Mussolini harangued thousands of followers from his balcony.

“Hadrian’s auditorium is the biggest find in Rome since the Forum was uncovered in the 1920s,” said Rossella Rea, the archaeologist running the dig.

The excavations, which are now due to open to the public, are next to a taxi rank and squeezed between a baroque church and the Vittoriano, an imposing monument to Italy’s defunct monarchy, which is nicknamed the Typewriter by locals.

The complex was only unearthed thanks to excavations to build a new underground railway line which will cross the heart of Rome. “We don’t have funds for these kind of digs so this has come to light thanks to the new line,” said Rea.

Archaeologists keeping a careful eye on what gets dug up have proved to be a mixed blessing for railway engineers, who have had to scrap plans for two stations in the heart of the centre of Rome when it was discovered their exits to the surface cut straight through Roman remains.

With the discovery of Hadrian’s complex at Piazza Venezia, the line risked losing its last stop in the centre and being forced to run into the heart of Rome from the suburbs and straight out the other side without stopping. But Rea said the station and the ruins could coexist.

“I believe we can run one of the exits from the station along the original corridor of the complex where Romans entered the halls,” she said.

The site sheds new light on Hadrian’s love of poetry – he wrote his own verse in Latin and Greek – and his taste for bold architecture – an 11-metre-high (36ft) arched ceiling once towered over the poets in the central hall.

Today the performing space is riddled with pits dug for fires, revealing how after three centuries of celebrating the arts, the halls fell into disrepair with the collapse of the Roman empire and were used for smelting ingots.

At the centre of the main hall, like a prop from a disaster movie, is a massive, nine-by-five-metre chunk of the monumental roof which came crashing down during an earthquake in 848 after standing for seven centuries.

Following the quake, the halls were gradually covered over until a hospital built on top in the 16th century dug down for cellar space. “We found pots lobbed down a well after the patients using them died,” said Rea. “We could date them because the designs on the glaze were the same we see on implements in Caravaggio paintings.”

While I was reading this, I couldn’t believe that I hadn’t mentioned it in rogueclassicism before … sure I miss things and I sometimes am too quick to delete things as I try to get to ‘inbox zero’, but this struck me as too major to have been missed. And yet, I couldn’t find any mention of ‘Hadrian’s auditorium’ in the thousands of posts in our archive. There were hints, however … back in 2008 we read of a staircase being found which led to some previously-unknown building (Roman Staircase Found … cf. Roman Staircase Update). We also heard of a sixth century copper foundry (Rome Subway Finds). Was that part of this? It just might be if I’m reading this column from Il Fatto Quotidiano correctly, which seems to have the same qualms I do about this being presented as ‘new’ when it’s been going on for at least three years. Ecce:

Diversi quotidiani nazionali, nelle pagine romane, dedicano ampio spazio alla notizia del ritrovamento di un nuovo, importantissimo, monumento dell’antichità, “nel cuore della città”. L’Auditorium di Adriano, l’“imperatore-costruttore”. Un risalto giustificato anche dalla sua promessa valorizzazione, attraverso la musealizzazione all’aperto. In realtà un complesso noto almeno dal 2009. Anche al grande pubblico.

Era tutto nato con una polemica. Nel novembre del 2008. I lavori per la realizzazione della fermata e le uscite della Linea C della metropolitana in Piazza Venezia, avevano costretto all’abbattimento di dieci piante secolari, cinque pini, due palme, due cipressi e una quercia a Piazza Madonna di Loreto. Tra la Chiesa di Santa Maria di Loreto e via dei Fornari. Gli ambientalisti a gridare le loro ragioni contro quello scempio. Inutilmente. Nel frattempo, nello stesso anno, un primo sondaggio accanto alla chiesa di Santa Maria di Loreto, aveva rivelato una scala monumentale, con gradini che l’allora Soprintendente archeologo di Roma, Angelo Bottini, dichiarò sembrare “fatti più per stare seduti che per essere saliti”. Un primo significativo indizio.

Poi l’avvio delle indagini archeologiche sulla piazza liberata dagli alberi e recintata. In un settore di estremo interesse per quanto concerne il tessuto urbanistico della città antica, trovandosi nelle immediate vicinanze del monumentale complesso del Foro di Traiano. Peraltro sorprendentemente “poco esplorato” in passato.

Nel 2009 la scoperta di un’altra scalinata, consorella di quella individuata due anni prima, proprio di fronte. Scoperta e purtroppo nascosta sotto il palazzo delle assicurazioni in cui era stata inter­rata. Lo spazio compreso tra le due gradonate, ampio circa tre metri, pavimentato in lastre rettangolari di granito grigio incorniciate con giallo antico. Le due gradonate situate all’interno di un’aula rettangolare lungo i lati Nord e Sud, costituite entrambe da sei gradini, e contenute ai lati da parapetti marmorei. Una seconda aula, posta a sud della sala centrale, separata da essa da un cuneo al cui interno sono collocate le scale per accedere al piano superiore. Il rinvenimento in situ e tra il materiale di crollo di numerosi laterizi bollati recanti le coppie consolari del 123 d.C. e del 125 d.C. consentiva di porre la costruzione di entrambe le aule nella piena età adrianea. Elementi che hanno fatto ipotizzare da subito all’archeologo Roberto Egidi, della Soprintendenza di Roma, di trovarsi davanti all’esatta riproduzione dell’Athaeneum che l’imperatore Adriano aveva fatto erigere ad Atene, accanto alla grande biblioteca costruita nel 132 d.C. Poi il proseguo degli scavi. Fino a pochi mesi fa. Il quadro ormai chiaro. Certamente dal punto di vista dell’articolazione planimetrica dell’edificio. Forse non del tutto per quanto riguarda l’interpretazione funzionale. L’edificio, costituito da tre aule, con pareti alte 20 metri, si estendeva su 1500 metri quadrati.
Le ragguardevoli dimensioni, la ricchezza della decorazione interna e l’alto livello della tecnica costruttiva sono elementi che conferiscono a questo complesso un carattere dichiaratamente pubblico e monumentale. L’assetto planimetrico richiama categorie architettoniche connesse all’esercizio di attività culturali come gli auditoria, luoghi in cui si svolgevano recitationes e lezioni di retorica.

E’ dunque assai probabile che possa essere identificato proprio con l’Athenaeum adrianeo. Che però le fonti datano al 135 d. C. Quindi un decennio circa dopo le indicazioni fornite dai bolli laterizi scoperti. Slittamento cronologico che non inficia la supposta interpretazione. Un monumento del quale nessuno conosceva l’ubicazione esatta. Neanche la “Forma Urbis”, la pianta monu­mentale marmorea di Roma imperiale fatta all’epoca di Settimio Severo e di cui si conser­vano importanti frammenti, ne certifica la presen­za.

Un monumento che, secondo consuetudine in ambito urbano, ha subito numerosi utilizzi. Cambiamenti di funzione. Da quando iniziarono le spoliazioni nel VI secolo d. C. Prima forse Zecca bizantina per la produzione di monete bronzee. Successivamente una necropoli. Infine un ospedale.

Terminate le indagini e gli studi avranno inizio le opere di restauro. Per le quali sono previsti almeno tre anni e, soprattutto, un milione di euro. Intanto, si dice, arriveranno presto i pannelli didattici. Necessari per fornire le informazioni essenziali sul monumento, farne capire i mutamenti nel corso dei secoli.

Insomma la notizia sembra riguardare non tanto lo status quo del complesso antico. Riconosciuto unanimemente come di straordinaria importanza per l’archeologia romana. Quanto la vita futura. La possibilità che esso dopo essere appannaggio esclusivamente degli addetti ai lavori, possa trasformarsi davvero in Bene Comune. Divenga fruibile ai più.

A destare comprensibile perplessità è proprio questa fase. I tempi e le risorse necessarie. Tante volte è già accaduto che resti unici nel loro genere, terminate le indagini, siano rimasti a lungo rinchiusi in recinti che si era promesso provvisori. Testimonianze estremamente significative, sostanzialmente alienate alla visita. Se non alla vista. Non allontanandosi troppo da Piazza Madonna di Loreto, quel che ancora succede lungo via dei Fori imperiali, all’altezza della Basilica di Massenzio. Dove sono resti del Foro della Pace, individuati diversi anni fa, attendono ancora di essere resi accessibili al pubblico. In quanto ai fondi, dei quali si è sempre alla spasmodica ricerca per qualsiasi intervento riguardi i nostri Beni Culturali, non si può che sperare che sia possibile reperirli. Nell’attesa vien da pensare, quasi con rabbia, alle spese dissennate che la politica ha praticato negli ultimi anni. Ma anche alle risorse mal impiegate da funzionari, non sempre adeguati, del Ministero dei Beni Culturali. Intanto l’archeologia, anche a Roma, riacquista la scena.

Whatever the case, it is a major find … I can’t figure out, however, whether it is mentioned in the Severan Marble Plan or not … does anyone know?

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8 thoughts on “Hadrian’s Athenaeum Dig Completed

  1. Prior to this 2009 “discovery” the Athenaeum was thought to be on the Capitoline Hill and the structure’s lay-out was unknown so it seems it wasn’t on the Marble Plan?
    Plus they would have used that as evidence of their find instead of only;
    [2009] “Archaeologist Roberto Egidi, who directed the excavation, said research in texts by ancient sources suggests they have found the Emperor Hadrian’s Athenaeum.”… “suggests”?

    Now 3yrs later do they have any physical proof or have they elaborated on their “research in texts by ancient sources” comment?
    Anyone care to try finding that evidence in the ancient texts?

    In 2009 I posted that question on a Latin language group and they had no luck for location or the structure’s lay-out.
    IMO; Finding an unknown structure during a subway dig receives no media coverage.

    Calling the structure the Athenaeum which was built by someone that the average person knows gets Worldwide media coverage.
    Which in turn boosts up Rome’s archaeological department and tourism.

    Look at the discoveries since ~04 in and around Rome that received Worldwide media coverage and what they have in common. And that is, they are always tied to either a famous Emperor or an historical figure that the average person on the street knows about but their finds are always lacking evidence.

    ‘King’s Royal Palace found in the Roman Forum’.
    Except it was excavated in the 19C and their recent re-excavation was just a small section.

    ‘Grave found that predates Romulus’ Founding of Rome’. The amazing announcement was that Romulus’ community were not the 1st inhabitants. The Roman Forum Museum has earlier than Romulus’ era graves on display found ~1900 in the Roman Forum.

    And then the Romulus & Remus Lupercale, Nero’s Rotating Banquet Room and Caligula’s Cryptoporticus (which based on location is possibly true).

    And then the ‘Augustus Memorial’ at Julius Caesar’s murder location.

    Bottomline; Do they have any new evidence in 2012 that that structure is the Athenaeum?

    Or only their 2009 claim that “research in texts by ancient sources suggests they have found the Emperor Hadrian’s Athenaeum”?

    • Re: “…Or only their 2009 claim that “research in texts by ancient sources suggests they have found the Emperor Hadrian’s Athenaeum”?

      The conference in Rome in Sept. 2011, the SSABR of Rome presented the findings from the “L’ATHENAEUM DI ADRIANO,” on the cover of the conference announcement they cite the Latin text (see below). Unfortunately no one from the Italian media attended the conference.

      “…quod Athenaeum vocant,…” in: Aur. Vict., Caes., XIV,4 in: “L’ATHENAEUM DI ADRIANO – Storia di un edifico dalla fonadazione al XVII secolo,” Rome: SSBAR Conference, (22/10/2011).

      Please see:

      — ROMA ARCHEOLOGIA: L’ edifico era a due piani, e resale al 123 d.C., L’ Auditorium di Adriano spunta a Piazza Venezia, CORRIERE DELLA SERA (13/12/2012), p. 9. [SSBAR - L'ATHENAEUM DI ADIANO - STORIA DI UN EDIFICO (22/09/2011)].

      http://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/8269626278/in/set-72157618784453605

      — Rome Archaeology: the Metro C Archaeological Surveys: the Piazza Madonna di Loreto, (Site # S14/B1). Plan / Model: Hadrian’s Library “Atheneuam” in Athens. ca. 132 AD.

      http://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/5424809942/in/set-72157618784453605

  2. Rome Archaeology: the Piazza Madonna dei Loreto / the Athenaeum of Hadrian Excavations (12/26/2012).

    Dear Dr. Meadows, thank you for your new blog article on the Athenaeum of Hadrian Excavations (12/26/2012).

    In light of your question: “…Whatever the case, it is a major find … I can’t figure out, however, whether it is mentioned in the Severan Marble Plan or not … does anyone know?”

    On Dec. 13th, the Corriere Della Sera also published a lengthy article on the progress and the completion of the excavations of the site (antiquity to the Rennaissance period), as well as several color photographs of the excavation site and the color reconstructions of the site in antiquity and later periods. In the C.D.S (12/13/2012), they also show the Severian Forma Urbis Fragment, number 29, and it location in relationship to the recent excavations. See # 1 below for a full history of the Piazza Madonna dei Loreto / the Athenaeum.

    — F.U.R Fragment # 29 on topographical plan of the the site (SSBAR/ROME).

    http://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/8269544732/in/set-72157618784453605

    Earlier in 2009-10, students from the La Sapeinza University in Rome, completed a series of studies on the topography of the site in antiquity to the present (the future Metro C excavations), see # 3 below.

    — Color photograph of the F.U.R fragment # 29, with the topograpghical reconstruction of the Libraies of the Basilica Ulpia overlying the fragment (La Sapienza [2009-10]).

    http://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/7134640067/in/set-72157629582120490

    It is also interesting to note, exactly one hundred years aon December 26th, 1912, prof. Thomas Ashby, Jr. Director British School of Rome, filled his annual report from Rome, “Rome in 1912,etc., in the TIMES OF LONDON. Here he also discuss the (then) urban and archaeological of the Imperial Forums by prof. Corrado Ricci (1911-12), then Director-General of Italy Antiquities and Fine arts, see 3 # below [now in PDF pp. 1-4].

    See:

    1). Roma – Gli Scavi Archeologici: Metro ‘C’ – Piazza Venezia / Piazza Madonna di Loreto. Area S14 / B1 (2007-2012). Area tra ex-Palazzo Bolognetti Torlonia / Palazzo Parracciani Nepoli & Via Macel dei Corvi).

    http://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157618784453605/detail/

    2). ROMA ARCHEOLOGIA – Progetto di rifunzionalizzazione dell’area archeologica di piazza Madonna di Loreto a Roma di Franesco Ciresi, Donatella Mighela, Antonio Lopez Garcia. La Sapienza (2009-10), Tav. I-XVI.

    http://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157629582120490/detail/

    3).ARCHEOLOGIA A ROMA -‘I Fori Imperiali cento anni fa’ 1912/2012. Estratto di Prof. Thomas Ashby, Jr. Lettera all’Editore – THE TIMES / Londra (26/12/1912), p. 7.* [PDF pp. 1-4].

    Prof. Thomas Ashby, Jr; “Archaeological Research in Italy. I. — Rome In 1912.”
    Letters to the editor of the Times. THE TIMES OF LONDON, (December 26th, 1912), p. 7.

    http://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/8308859129/in/photostream

      • Because the Italian archaeologists have had a say on to discovery of the Hadrianic complex (the Temple of Trajan and the Athenaeum), I have because discussing this new evidence with Prof. James Packer (Forum of Trajan [2001/1997]), and Italian architect Dr. Barbara Baldrati (new topographical plan of the Imperial Fora [2002-04]). Problematically, the full discussion of the construction history of these two sites above have not been published up to date (ca. 2012), but, when looking at the new evidence from the restoration architects perspective, the evidence of the remaining architectural structures dating from the Trajanic and Hadrianic in the area as documented by Prof. Giacomo Boni (1906-07), G. Gatti (1904-05/1934/1940), and later scholars, the new evidence is largely based upon the comparison of these surviving remains: walls, basalt pavements, brickstamps, and other surviving structural elements, but, so far all the evidence points to Hadrianic date for the structure, and so forth,

      • Opps I wasn’t clear in my post, I didn’t doubt their dating the structure to Hadrian’s reign just their ID’ing of it.

        Trajan removed that ridge connecting the Capitoline Hill with the Quirinal and on his nearby column claimed “To show how high a mountain and the site for such great works had been cleared away”.

        That opened up the area for Trajan to expand his building
        project and it was only logical for Hadrian to continue building in this new area even if it was alongside or 10’s of meters west of the removed ridge.

  3. Rome, In search of Hadrian’s Athenaeum, Update (03|2014).

    For the benefit of the English-speaking reader interested in the Pz. Madonna dei Loreto | Athenaeum (2006-2014), the following (Italian, English and Spanish) documentation and photo’s of the excavation site (79 new foto’s by Dr.Antonio Lopez García, April – June – September 2010 & by Martin G. Conde (257 + foto’s [c.1904-2014]) are now available online, and can be used to update the previous report on the METRO C, “Pz. Venezia & Pz. Madonna di Loreto,” MIBAC | SSBAR, Bollettino d’Arte (2011). This new research below updates the information for the sector of B-5 of the Pz. Madonna dei Loreto excavations not published in the former edition of the Bollettino d’Arte (2011). This new information covers the period of the new Flavian (pre-Trajanic) era discoveries at the site and update the excavations and investigations of the medieval and Rennaissance structures of the “L’ ospedale dei Fornari / Pal. Parracciani & Nepoli / Pal. Desideri & Via Macel dei Corvi,” then demolished between 1904-1932.

    _______________

    ROMA ARCHEOLOGIA & I FORI IMPERIALI: Dott. Antonio Lopez García, “Roma, Scavo di Piazza della Madonna di Loreto & l’Athenaeum di Adriano ( = A.L. García, “ANALES, 23-24 [2013]), ” & A. L. García, Foto: 1 di 79, Apr. – Giu. – Sett. (2010), [03|2014].

    http://rometheimperialfora19952010.wordpress.com/2014/03/11/roma-archeologia-i-fori-imperiali-dott-antonio-lopez-garcia-roma-scavo-di-piazza-della-madonna-di-loreto-lathenaeum-di-adriano-a-l-garcia-anales-23-24/

    Note: A special thank you to Dr. Lopez for being kind enough to discuss his important work with me in (April thru June [2010]) as well as the work of his fellow researchers from the La Sapienza University of Rome at the l’Athenaeum di Adriano (2009-10) [= "Progetto di rifunzionalizzazione dell’area archeologica di piazza Madonna di Loreto a Roma, "La Sapienza (2009-10), Tav. I-XVI].

    1). PDF = Dott. A. L. García, “En busca del Athenaeum de Adriano | In search of Hadrian’s Athenaeum [ = Roma, Scavo di Piazza della Madonna di Loreto & l’Athenaeum di Adrian0],” ANALES DE ARQUEOLOGÍA C O R D O B E S A, núm. 23-24 (2012-2013), [PDF, pp. 1-24], pp. 217-134.

    “…Con l’inizio dei lavori per la costruzione della Linea C della Metropolitana di Roma sono stati fatti degli scavi archeologici nella zondella Piazza della Madonna di Loreto, nelle vicinanze del Foro di Traiano,
    in cui sono statee ritrovate una serie di strutture a forma di aula per cui è stata proposta l’identificazione conn l’Athenaeum dell’imperatore Adriano, una sorta di accademia o università fondata nel 123 d.C. e che
    sarebbe stata il centro della cultura nella capitale dell’Impero almeno fino al V secolo d.C.,…”

    2). FOTO: 1 di ‘ = Dott. Antonio Lopez García, “Roma, Scavo di Piazza della Madonna di Loreto & l’Athenaeum di Adrian0,” Apr. – Giu. – Sett. (2010), unpublished | Dr. A. L. García, personal communication (2013).

    Antonio Lopez Garcia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Archaeology, Graduate Student.

    – LOPEZ GARCIA, A., El Athenaeum de Adriano. El centro de la cultura griega en Roma, en Actas del XVIII Congreso Internacional de Arqueología Clásica, Mérida, 2013 (En prensa).

    – LOPEZ GARCIA, A., Cercando l’Athenaeum di Adriano, Atti RaC 2012, 2013 (in stampa).

    – LOPEZ GARCIA, A., En busca del Athenaeum de Adriano, Anales de Arqueología Cordobesa, 23-24, 2013, pp. 217-134. = http://www.researchgate.net/

    _________________________

    ROMA ARCHEOLOGIA: Piazza Venezia – Tra la fine del 1800 e l’inizio del 1900, a seguito della realizzazione del monumento a Vittorio Emanuele II & Piazza Venezia (2009-13), in: METRO C scpa (2011) & RADICI DEL PRESENTE (2013) & Dott. Pietro Strorti – Trivioquadrivio (2013).
    _________________________

    See:

    — ROMA ARCHEOLOGIA e BENI CULTURALI: Dott. Antonio Lopez García, “Roma, Scavo di Piazza della Madonna di Loreto & l’Athenaeum di Adriano,” Foto di: Dott. A.L. Garcia (06/2013).

    — ROMA ARCHEOLOGIA e BENI CULTURALI: Dott. Antonio Lopez García, “Le aule di Piazza della Madonna di Loreto (Roma): l’Athenaeum di Adriano?” (02/2013) [testo in spagnolo].

    — ROMA ARCHEOLOGIA – “Progetto di rifunzionalizzazione dell’area archeologica di piazza Madonna di Loreto a Roma,” di Franesco Ciresi, Donatella Mighela, Antonio Lopez Garcia. Rome, La Sapienza (2009-10), Tav. I-XVI.

    — Roma – Gli Scavi Archeologici: Metro ‘C’ – Piazza Venezia / Piazza Madonna di Loreto. Area S14 / B1 (2007-2012). Foto: 1 di 237.

    — Roma – Gli Scavi Archeologici: Metro ‘C’ – Piazza Venezia / Piazza Madonna di Loreto. Area S14 / B1 (2007-2012), SSBAR (11|2013), [PDF], pp. 1-30.

    Nota: SSBAR (11|2013), aggiornare ROMA, METRO C, “Pz. Venezia & Pz. Madonna di Loreto,” MIBAC | SSBAR, Bollettino d’Arte (2011).

    — Auditorium di Adriano – Avviso di sospensione della procedura di gara, MIBAC | SSBAR (02 | 2014).

    — Concorso di idee – Auditorium di Adriano, MIBAC | SSBAR (11 | 2013).

    ______________________

    — Nota: anche foto di Sig. Gianni De Dominicis, Roma (2-17|01| 2011), in: Roberto Egidi, Silvia Orlandi, “Una nuova iscrizione monumentale dagli scavi di piazza Madonna di Loreto, Historika. Studi di storia greca e romana,” Vol 1, N° 1 (2011), pp. 301-319, Riferimenti bibliografici | [Gianni De Dominicis, p. 308].

    http://www.flickr.com/photos/63442012@N00/6858924786/in/photolist-bs6MnU-9bTrxV-9CtTMZ-cEhPvN-8vCJ7o-992Jwh-98sqK4-dSK4wf-dStXeU-cijh6L-ap1En6-aiHyFf

    — Rome: the Metro C Archaeological Surveys: the Piazza Madonna di Loreto, Sector # (S14/B1), “The Discovery of New Inscriptions & Architectural Elements of the Temple of Trajan?” UPDATED MARCH 21st, 2012, By: Martin G. Conde, January 20, 2011, & Photo’s by: Gianni De Dominicis, January 2 & 17, 2011).

    http://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/5374055767/

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