Bronze Mask of Pan from Hippos-Sussita

From a University of Haifa press release:

A large bronze mask of the god Pan, the only of its kind, was uncovered at the University of Haifa’s excavation at Hippos-Sussita National Park. According to Dr. Michael Eisenberg, bronze masks of this size are extremely rare and usually do not depict Pan or any of the other Greek or Roman mythological images. “Most of the known bronze masks from the Hellenistic and Roman periods are minature”.

It seems that in recent years, the mysteries of Hippos-Sussita have been revealing their secrets in an extraordinary way: first, a sculpture of Hercules was exposed by the winter rains of 2011, then, two years later, a basalt tombstone with a sculpture of the deceased’s bust was uncovered. Now there is a new surprise: the only finding of a bronze mask of unnatural size, in the form of the god Pan/Faunus.

Excavations at Hippos-Sussita are usually conducted in the summer. However, a series of intriguing structures on the ridge of the city, where the ancient road passed, led to a one-day dig in the winter. The dig focused on a basalt structure which the researchers assumed was a type of armoured hangar for the city’s projectile machines. The finding of a ballista ball made of limestone, a different material from the basalt that was customarily used at Hippos-Sussita to make balista balls, made them realize that it was an enemy’s projectile.

In light of this interesting find the researchers decided to search the structure for coins to help them date the the balls. It didn’t take long for the metal detector, operated by the capable hands of Dr. Alexander Iermolin, head of the conservation laboratory at the Institute of Archaeology at the University, to start beeping frantically. The archialogosts were not yet aware of what was in store for them: “After a few minutes we pulled out a big brown lump and realized it was a mask. We cleaned it, and started to make out the details: The first hints that helped us recognize it were the small horns on top of its head, slightly hidden by a forelock,” said Dr. Eisenberg.

Horns like the ones on the mask are usually associated with Pan, the half-man half-goat god of the shepherds, music and pleasure. A more thorough cleaning in the lab, revealed strands of a goat beard, long pointed ears, and other characteristics that led Dr. Eisenberg to identify the mask as depicting a Pan/Faunus/Satyr. “The first thought that crossed my mind was, ‘Why here, beyond the city limits?’ After all, the mask is so heavy it could not have just rolled away. The mask was found nearby the remains of a basalt structure with thick walls and very solid masonry work, which suggested a large structure from the Roman period. A Pan altar on the main road to the city, beyond its limits, is quite likely. After all, Pan was worshipped not only in the city temples but also in caves and in nature. The ancient city of Paneas, north of Hippos-Sussita, had one of the most famous worshipping compounds to the god Pan inside a cave. Because they included drinking, sacrificing and ecstatic worship that sometimes included nudity and sex, rituals for rustic gods were often held outside of the city”, Dr. Eisenberg explained.

Now the archeologists have begun to uncover the basalt structure, in the hopes of finding more clues to its purpose. They assume that it was used for defensive purposes “Perhaps in a later period, during the Pax Romana, when the city fortifications were not required, the building turned into a place of worship to the god of shepherds, and maybe what we have here is a magnificent fountain-head or burial offerings of a nearby mausoleum,” Dr. Eisenberg suggests.
As mentioned, the researchers are unfamiliar with any similar bronze mask from the Roman or Hellenistic era of Pan or a Satyr. “Most of the masks are usually similar in size to theater masks, are made of stone or terracotta and are of ritual, apotropaic, decorative or symbolic significance. I contacted the curators of some of the world’s greatest museums, and even they said that they were not familiar with the type of bronze mask that we found at Hippos. Hippos-Sussita cannot compete in wealth with the ancient cultural centers of the Roman Empire and as such, a finding of this kind here, of all places, is amazing,” concluded Dr. Eisenberg.

The YNet coverage adds some details (inter alia):

The researchers, who were looking for coins with the help of a metal detector, discovered a huge metal block. “We dug out a huge brown block from the ground,” said Dr. Alexander Lermolin the director of the conservation laboratory at the University of Haifa’s Institute of Archealogy.

“We gently cleaned it from the dirt and began to realize the details: Small horns at the head of the mask hidden between forelocks of hair were the first hints in identifying the mask,” said Dr. Lermolin.

“The horns immediately pointed to the fact that it was (a mask of) Pan, the god of goats, who is half man and half goat, and he also represents music and entertainment. After a thorough cleaning in the lab, they clearly identified the size of the goat, the long and pointed ears and other characteristics that led to an almost certain identification,” said Dr. Lermolin.

The thought that there was a main altar along the main road to the city is definitely appealing,” Dr. Eisenberg summarizes.

“Maybe in a later period, when the city’s fortifications were no longer needed, the designated purpose of the building changed and became a ceremonial site for the goat god. Or maybe we have before us a magnificent fountain head or burial sacrifice,” said Dr. Eisenberg.

The Ynet coverage also includes a nice video that’s worth a look as well as a photo of one of Dr. Eisenberg’s co-researchers holding the mask in question:


Dr Michael Eisenberg photo via Ynet

What seems really interesting is that the Pan is beardless (so young) and seems to be employing the terrifying voice he was known for. I can’t really find any indication of/reason for a cult centre in the area.

Other coverage worth checking out:

… and the dig’s webpage might be worth perusing too, although it doesn’t seem to have any more details on this find.

Slimy Plasmodiumque Romanus? Let’s Not Get Too Excited …

As I try to reestablish my blogging rhythms here, I couldn’t help but wonder how much excitement will be generated by a recent story making the rounds due to an article in the Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports. Here’s the an excerpt from a University of the West of England press release:

A paper entitled ‘Slime Mould Imitates Development of Roman Roads in the Balkans’ has just been published in the Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports. The unique heuristic abilities of the slime mould, Plasmodium polycephalum, inspired the scientists to apply the method for the first time in archaeology.

Co-author Andrew Adamatzky, a professor in unconventional computing from UWE Bristol, said, “We used acellular slime mould P. polycephalum to analyse the historical development of the ancient Roman road network in the Balkans.

“Plasmodium is a single cell organism which – when foraging for food – spans its environment with a network of tubes that under strictly controlled conditions can reproduce human-made transport networks such as roads or railways. Research done during the last decade has shown that the slime mould can physically imitate technological artefacts and processes in a variety of ways undetected by conventional computational methods.

“After conducting a series of experiments and with the help of a computer-based simulation the team discovered that the slime mould managed to develop a network of tubes providing a good match to the network of roads that served the needs of Roman Empire from around 100 BC to 400 AD and its expansion into the Balkans 2000 years ago.

“The living mould not only reproduced the two major military roads that crossed the area, Via Egnatia and Via Diagonalis but also the smaller roads or routes connecting the hinterland of the Balkans with the coastal Aegean area.” […]

As might be expected, the original report is behind a paywall … the free abstract from Science Direct isn’t exactly helpful either:

Due to its unexpected computing abilities, Physarum polycephalum, a vegetative stage of acellular slime, has been repeatedly used during the last decade in order to reproduce transport networks. After conducting a series of biological experiments and with the help of a Cellular Automata (CA) model we try to explore the ability of the slime in order to imitate the Roman road network in the Balkans, an area which was of great strategic importance for the stability of the Roman Empire in the East. The application of Physarum machines hopes to offer a first step towards a new interdisciplinary, almost unconventional, approach to archaeology.

We still don’t know exactly what these unconventional interdisciplinarians did, but fortunately someone does seem to have had accessed the study … over at Popular Science, inter alia:

Using a map of the Balkans made of agar gel, the researchers placed oat flakes in the locations of 17 major Roman cities. The mold was placed initially on the oat flake for Thessaloniki, a city in the northern Aegean region that was a major urban center at the time (and still the second-largest city in Greece today). The researchers ran the experiment 18 times, with the mold starting its spread from Thessaloniki for each run. The molds recreated with remarkable accuracy a network of roads similar to that used by the ancient Romans, even tracing out paths of relatively unknown and obscure roads like the West-Pontian road traveling northeast though the Balkans. […]

So basically, they put food on the cities and waited for the slime to find it. It’s apparently an amazing thing that this mould travels in straight lines, but I’m not sure why. Just to get an idea of the process, though, this sort of thing has existed on Youtube for ages. Here’s the Tokyo subway, e.g.:

… or the U.S.:

Somehow I don’t think this is going to have the impact the Journal seems to think it will …

In Explorator 17.35

I’ve done this sporadically in the past and honestly don’t know why it isn’t a weekly thing, especially now that I’m generally swamped at school and have neglected the blogging in favour of tweeting of late … in any event, here are some items from my Explorator newsletter’s edition du jour which might be of interest (some of this has appeared on Twitter, but there are some items that haven’t):

Interesting implications/suggestions from an oddly-decorated Egyptian coffin:

Some antiquities smugglers were caught at Cairo’s airport:,-Roman-map-of-Palestine-recovered-fr.aspx

An 1800 years b.p. Jewish inscription in a 19th century Muslim mausoleum:

In case you missed it last week, there’s a ton of coverage this week of the indictment of a ‘gang of six’ who were illegally excavating in the area where the DSS were found:–Antiquities-robbers-caught-red-handed;%23038;%23038

Drought reveals Ottoman structures in Lake Van:

A late Bronze Age settlement and necropolis from Platamonas:

Polish archaeologists believe they have found the ‘heart’ of Nea Paphos:,Polish-archaeologists-in-Cyprian-breakthrough

A pile of artifacts emerge from the British Ambassador in Rome’s garden:

Feature on the dig at Capitolias (Jordan):,403058,polish-archaeologists-in-the-ancient-city-of-jupiter-capitolinus.html

Cyprus’ ‘Elgin Marbles’ is the Cesnola Collection:

Nice overviewish things on what was found at Elveden:

Studying the role of water in the rise of the Roman empire:

Plenty of coverage of the Lego Acropolis getting into the Acropolis Museum:

Feature on the Meroe head of Augustus:


A Danubian horseman relief from Viminacium:

Flood waters engulfed the Temple of Artemis at Vavrona:

Another feature on Heracleion:

Suggestion that ‘slow compensation’ in Greece for antiquities finds isn’t a good thing:

More hype for Antikythera shipwreck finds:

Pink Floyd and the Pope are spurring a Latin comeback, apparently:

Honours for Timothy Winters:

Recognition for a Roman dig in Cumbria:

There’s a new PhD program at WashingtonU St Louis:

Feature on Pompeiian graffiti:

Feature on MU’s cast gallery:

Umbria wants to cash in on its archaeological heritage:

… and everyone seems to have an opinion on the Elgin/Parthenon Marbles:

… and the occupant speculation continues at Amphipolis:

More on those shackled Roman burials in France:

More on recent Zeugma mosaic finds:

More on Roman and Pictish coins (etc.) from an Aberdeenshire field:


More Greek manuscripts online:

Big bucks for Rosetti’s Venus Verticordia:

Pagan connections to Christmas:

Review of Lepore, *Secret History of Wonder Woman*:

Review of Johnson, *Lives in Ruins*:


The Greeks:

Greece of Origins:

Thracian Gold:

In case you missed it among the Elgin Marbles thing, the Hermitage is celebrating its 250th anniversary:


Germany wants to ‘crack down’ on antiquties theft:

Latest Anonymous Swiss Collector Culture Crime News:

A Roman hoard from Shropshire has been declared treasure:

Hopes that another hoard will stay at the Aethelstan Museum:

Ludus duodecim scriptorum Board from Turkey!

Interesting item from Hurriyet … it says “game pieces” but the photo that accompanies the story seems to be more about a ‘game board’:

Two game pieces from the Roman era 1,800 years ago have been found in the ancient city of Kibyra, in the southern Turkish province of Burdur’s Gölhisar district.

“We don’t have too much information about this game but we believe that it was played by two people on squares … with dice,” Professor Ünal Demirer said, adding that the Roman-era game dated back 1,800-2,000 years ago at least.

The game was known as “Ludus duodecim scriptorium” or “XII scripta” (game of 12 markings).

Excavations in the ancient city are being conducted by Mehmet Akif Ersoy University’s (MAKU) Archaeology Department.

Demirer said the works had been continuing since 2007 on the avenue of the ancient city’s agora, adding that the game pieces were also used for other purposes.

“The game was found in the pool structure. We think that it was also used for another purpose. Because of its Latin name, we attribute the game to the Romans. It is like today’s Jacks. People spent time in the agora playing such games,” he said.

“Ludus duodecim scriptorum” was a board game popular during the time of the Roman Empire. The game tabula in Byzantium is thought to be a descendant of this game, and both are similar to modern backgammon.

Very little information about specific gameplay has survived, though we know that it was played using three cubic dice, and each player had 15 pieces.

Here’s the accompanying photo:

via Hurriyet

There’s a good overview of Ludus duodecim scriptorum at Ancient Games 2: Duodecim Scripta and Tabula

Unlooted Tomb from Aigai/Vergina

I was hoping we’d hear more about this find … from eKathimerini:

An ancient tomb along with burial offerings, allegedly belonging to a man who died around the time of Alexander the Great, has been unearthed at the ancient city of Aigai, in northern Greece.

The archaeologist in charge of the excavation at Aigai, Aggeliki Kottaridi, reported the discovery with a message on her Facebook page. She said that the box-shaped Macedonian tomb had not been looted.

“[This is] a pleasant exception since the Aigai necropolis was brutally looted by Gallic mercenaries of Pyrrhus in 276 BC and we rarely have the chance to find undisturbed burials,” she said.

Kottaridi also posted two images from the tomb, one of them depicting a decorated vessel used to mix wine and water at the symposia.

The photo that accompanies the piece (and is also on a Greek Reporter version) is somewhat curious:

Aggeliki Kottaridi photo (?)

Aggeliki Kottaridi photo (?)

There was some discussion on the Classics list — I’m not sure how serious — that this was a helmet (presumably some sort of pilos type) but this seems to be the gold-plated vessel referred to in the article (that would be an awfully uncomfortable chin strap!). But why is it laying on the floor like this (if unlooted)?