Not sure why there isn’t anything about this at the IAA site … so far it’s only at Ha’aretz and for some reason they let me behind the paywall, so we’ll strike while the ‘Ferrata’ is hot, as it were:
Israeli archaeologists have found ruins they believe are the site of one of the two Roman legions based in the country between 120 and 300 C.E.
Israel Antiquities Authority archaeologist Yotam Tepper had long suspected that the site in the Galilee was the base of the Legio Sexta Ferrata, the 6th Roman Legion, also known as the Ironclad Legion. The other legion in the country was the 10th, based in Jerusalem.
Over the past week, an expedition led by Tepper and archaeologist Matthew Adams found the base of a battery or wall, a moat surrounding the camp, water pipes, a covered sewage channel, coins and tiles. The legion’s symbol adorned a broken shingle.
The site sits between two other historical gems: Tel Megiddo, the ancient fortified city that has been named a UNESCO World Heritage site, and the oldest known Christian house of worship, which was discovered around seven and a half years ago about a kilometer south.
Tepper uncovered the Christian site during antiquities authority digs at Megiddo Prison in 2005. Now the legion site is in focus; it’s why the area became known as Legio. In Arabic, it was known as Lajun before early Zionists restored the name Megiddo. “We’re very excited,” said Tepper, who has been excavating the Legio-Megiddo area for 15 years
The legion camp is comparable to the Defense Ministry’s Kirya headquarters in Tel Aviv, says Tepper. “That’s where the administrative-bureaucratic system dealt with the military government,” he says. “From here, around 3,500 soldiers in a hierarchical system ruled over the Galilee and part of Samaria.”
Excavations and surveys over the years found the locations of the Jewish village Othnai in the Megiddo Prison compound, and the Roman-Byzantine city of Maximianopolis near Kibbutz Megiddo. To find the legion camp, Tepper conducted field surveys and relied on surveys from the past.
“I even went to the homes of local people, who poured me out old coins from old tin cans,” he says. “In people’s gardens, we found archaeological artifacts bearing various inscriptions.”
Slowly he put together the puzzle: aqueducts, burial grounds and the ruins of a civilian settlement at the edge of the camp. There were also remnants of ancient roads and a milestone marking the two-mile mark from the camp. All this helped Tepper conclude that the legion’s camp lay under a hill.
Tepper and Adams analyzed an enhanced high-resolution satellite photo and could clearly make out the square marking the camp’s boundaries; each side was around 250 meters long. A ground-penetrating radar scan provided further evidence. Student volunteers from the United States, Europe and Australia helped out.
According to Hanan Erez, head of the Megiddo Regional Council, the plan is to build a tourism complex based around the ancient chapel and Tel Megiddo. Next week a senior official of the Catholic Church is scheduled to visit the sanctuary’s remains.
According to Tepper, the chapel offered evidence of an ancient Christian community whose members included Roman officers. This was the period before Christianity was recognized as a religion, and well before it became Rome’s official religion. The chapel was apparently abandoned at the end of the third century.
Tepper believes the legion camp was also abandoned around that time. “You can see that the camp wasn’t destroyed but was abandoned in an orderly way,” he says. “From here they moved east across the Jordan River.”
This one’s getting a pile of coverage in the British press, with a couple of different focuses. The best overall coverage is the Durham University Press release … with a bit of trimming:
An 1,800-year-old carved stone head of what is believed to be a Roman god has been unearthed in an ancient rubbish dump.
Archaeologists made the discovery at Binchester Roman Fort, near Bishop Auckland, in County Durham.
First year Durham University archaeology student Alex Kirton found the artefact, which measures about 20cm by 10cm, in buried late Roman rubbish within what was probably a bath house.
The sandstone head, which dates from the 2nd or 3rd century AD, has been likened to the Celtic deity Antenociticus, thought to have been worshipped as a source of inspiration and intercession in military affairs.
A similar sandstone head, complete with an inscription identifying it as Antenociticus, was found at Benwell, in Newcastle upon Tyne, in 1862.
Dr David Petts, Lecturer in Archaeology at Durham University, said:
“We found the Binchester head close to where a small Roman altar was found two years ago. We think it may have been associated with a small shrine in the bath house and dumped after the building fell out of use, probably in the 4th century AD
“It is probably the head of a Roman god – we can’t be sure of his name, but it does have similarities to the head of Antenociticus found at Benwell in the 19th century.
“We may never know the true identity of this new head, but we are continuing to explore the building from which it came to help us improve our understanding of late Roman life at Binchester and the Roman Empire’s northern frontier in Northern England.
“Antenociticus is one of a number of gods known only from the northern frontier, a region which seems to have had a number of its own deities.
“It’s also an excellent insight into the life and beliefs of the civilians living close to the Roman fort. The style is a combination of classical Roman art and more regional Romano-British traditions. It shows the population of the settlement taking classical artistic traditions and making them their own.”
Alex, 19, from Bishop’s Stortford, in Hertfordshire, said:
“As an archaeology student this is one of the best things and most exciting things that could have happened.”
He added: “It was an incredible thing to find in a lump of soil in the middle
of nowhere – I’ve never found anything remotely exciting as this.”
Dr David Mason, Principal Archaeologist with the site’s owner, Durham County Council, said:
“The head is a welcome addition to the collection of sculpture and inscriptions from Binchester. Previous religious dedications from the site feature deities from the classical pantheon of gods and goddesses such as the supreme god Jupiter and those associated with healing and good health such as Aesculapius, Salus and Hygeia.
“This one however appears to represent a local Romano-Celtic god of the type frequently found in the frontier regions of the Empire and probably representing the conflation of a classical deity with its local equivalent. The similarity with the head of Antenociticus is notable, but this could be a deity local to Binchester.”
The Binchester head is African in appearance, but Dr Petts, who is also Associate Director of Durham University’s Institute of Medieval and Early Modern Studies, said experts were unsure whether these features were deliberate or coincidental.
He explained: “This is something we need to consider deeply. If it is an image of an African, it could be extremely important, although this identification is not certain.”
Dr Mason added: “The African style comparison may be misleading as the form is typical of that produced by local craftsmen in the frontier region.”
The find was made as part of a five year project at Binchester Roman Fort which is shedding new light on the twilight years of the Roman Empire.
The Binchester dig is a joint project between Durham University’s Department of Archaeology, site owner Durham County Council, Stanford University’s Archaeology Centre and the Architectural and Archaeological Society of Durham and Northumberland.
About Binchester Fort
Binchester – known to the Romans as Vinovia – was established in the later 1st century AD and was once the largest Roman fort in County Durham.
Sited on the main Roman road between the legionary headquarters at York and Hadrian’s Wall, it controlled an important crossing point over the River Wear. It was also surrounded by the remains of a substantial settlement which would have housed the civilian population.
The major excavation fieldwork has been underway since 2009 and focuses on a section of the fort interior and a sample area of the nearby civilian settlement.
Previous finds at the site have included the remains of very late Roman activity at the fort, among them evidence for large-scale leather production dating to the very final years of Roman control in Britain in the late 4th and early 5th century AD.
Other evidence discovered at Binchester, including structures and artifacts, might also indicate continued occupation at the site into the early medieval period.
The archaeologists’ work at the site featured on BBC Two’s Digging for Britain in 2011 and on Channel Four’s Time Team in 2008.
About Antenociticus – a “Geordie” Roman god?
A carved stone head depicting Antenociticus was found in 1862 at a temple dedicated to the deity at Benwell, Newcastle upon Tyne. Fragments of a forearm and a lower leg were also found, suggesting that the head may have been part of a life-sized statue
The small temple of Antenociticus stands in the vicus (civilian settlement) outside Benwell (Condercum) Fort, one of 13 permanent forts added to the line of Hadrian’s Wall during its construction.
The temple was built in about AD 178-80, probably to mark the promotion of the Roman cavalry prefect who dedicated one of three altars in the temple to Antenociticus.
It is thought Antenociticus was possibly worshipped as a source of inspiration and intercession in military matters
Antenociticus is not mentioned at any other Romano-British site or on any inscriptions from the Continent, hence his identification as a local deity.
Quite a bit of the coverage mentions the student archaeologist who made the find. The Daily Mail’s coverage includes some comments from him:
Undergraduate Alex Kirton, 19, suddenly came across the carved stone head of a possibly Geordie Roman God at the site of an ancient settlement.
The stunning artefact, measuring 8in by 4in, is believed to have been dumped as rubbish when a Roman bath house fell out of use and remained hidden until now.
Alex, a first year student at Durham University, was helping to excavate the bath house site at Binchester Roman Fort, near Bishop Auckland, Co Durham, when he made the find.
The sandstone head, which dates from the 2nd or 3rd century AD, is likely to represent the war-like Antenociticus, a Celtic god worshipped as a way of inspiring troops about to go into battle.
Alex, who is studying Archaeology and Ancient Civilisations, said: ‘I know that I may be an archaeologist for the rest of my life and never find something this significant again, but it’s incredibly exciting to have been the person who uncovered it.
‘My trowel touched something and as I pulled away the soil I realised I was looking at the back of a head. I could clearly to see the impression of the hair carved into it.
‘I knew I may have found something of interest and I called over my supervisor as I thought I ought to let someone know what I’d discovered.
‘He came over and between us we carefully cleared away the soil that was surrounding it until all of a sudden the head rolled out face up and was just lying there staring up at us.’
The teenager said he knew his find was a rare one but he realised how special it was when he saw his supervisor’s stunned expression.
‘I was absolutely ecstatic, it seemed such an outrageous piece of luck to come across it on my second dig, but I’m delighted I did,’ he said.